The Nodal Centers and Their
Neuroendocrine and Hormonal Correlates


Edward Frederick Block IV, Ph.D.

Original July 2005
Updated: January 2010


All Rights Reserved


The information herein is for general purposes only, it is not definitive. It is intended to be read as an ancillary to "The Macrocosm Within" so as to clarify the correspondences between the Nodal Centers, the Chakras, the Trumpets, or the Wheels and the Neuroendocrine/Hormonal System of the Human body. Occult knowldge needs to be updated as the knowledge of modern science progresses. The subtleties of understanding are expanding and deepening. First I will present the Correlations and then the supporting material. One thing that needs to be pointed out is that the nodal centers are subtle energy expressions while the behavioral correlations are expressions of the Central Nervous System. Two very different things indeed!


Nodal CenterNeuroendocrine/Hormonal Tissue
Incarnational"Silver Chord"/Aura
CrownPineal Gland, Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland
BinduPineal Gland & Cerebellum
BrowCerebrum, Thalamus, Limbic Structures
ThroatThyroid/Parathyroid Glands
HeartThymus Gland
SolarIslets of Langerhans embedded within the Pancreatic Tissue
SacralGonads/Accessory Sexual Glands
BasalAdrenal Cortex/Medulla


The Nodal Centers or Nodes are the crossover points for what is termed the Subtle Energies of the body. By crossover points I mean that the nodal centers are the point of change in spin orientation from Clock-Wise (CW) to Counter-Clock-Wise (CCW) of the energy in harmonic resonance moving through this system of nodal centers. This process is bi-directional and dynamic.

The Nodal centers form a local matrix within the backdrop of the Solar System Interplanetary Electromagnetic and Gravitometric Field Matrix. This is culturally expressed as the Staff of Hermes or now called the Medcial Caduceus in Western parlance.

The energies moving through the Human Nodal Matrix are not the energies of metabolism by cellular components such as mitochondria. Neither are they the energies of the various biochemical molecules found in living systems such as proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. They are also not the bond energies of the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen elements that go to make up these biochemical molecules. Again, they are not the currents of electrons and protons moving through the cells, interstitial fluid spaces and extra-cellular matrix that comprises the bulk of the matter of the body. All the above contribute to the overall Aura of the body. However, there are energies not easily characterized by modern physics which subtend all the above sources of electromagnetic/gravitomagnetic energy. It is part of the hidden or occult energies of subatomic particles as quarks, leptons and neutrinos.

The interaction of the components of matter as electrons, protons and neutrons make up the electromagnetic spectrum from the very energetic (Gamma rays as an example) to the the very weak (long radio waves as an example). Somewhere in the middle is what we call visible light.

The energy relationships of gravitons are not well understood as yet. Thus I am not able to sufficiently comment on the gravitomagnetic waves attendant to matter. Both components of matter interactions, electromagnetic and gravitomagnetic, contribute to the Aura. It is my thesis that 3 of the nodes are tuned and resonate to frequencies and harmonics of electromagnetic energies and 3 nodes are tuned and resonate to frequencies and harmonics of gravitomagnetic energies. In the middle of the 2 groups are what is called the Heart Center or Heart Node in modern western meditational terminology. The Heart Center is the crack in the Cosmic Egg, the overlapping interface between the 2 types of matter energy expressions- electromagnetic and gravitomagnetic.

The Nodal Centers are:

(-3)Basal, (-2)Sacral, (-1)Solar,
(+1)Throat, (+2)Brow, (+3) Crown & Bindu, (+4) Incarnational.

The Earth is negative to the positive expression of the Solar System Interplanetary Electromagnetic Field Matrix (SSIEFM), see the information regarding the SSIEFM.

The Basal nodal center is said to deal with the human behaviors of basic personal survival. This entails the need for food, shelter and tools. Humans are omnivorous and anything we eat is classified as food. Shelter is culturally expressed as to form in all Human groupings. Tools includes clothing, weapons, cooking utensils and anything else made by human hands or other tools. This all begs the condition of territory, social cooperative interaction and status within the group. As I said, personal survival!

The Sacral nodal center deals with sexuality, aggressivity and dominance. Thus territorial dominance by the group, dominance within the gender grouping and dominance within the family. A human forms a family only when sufficient resources may be controlled by him/her in order to provide for personal, mate and offspring survival.

The Solar nodal center deals with learning social skills, survival skills and tool making. It deals with learning skills necessary for everyday living and interaction with the environment. Environment means the physical and climatological situation, the non-human biological species community interactions and human species community interactions.

The Heart nodal center deals with the concept of kinship as well as self and not-self. It is the interface between "me" and all that is in the world.

The Throat nodal center deals with manifestation in all of its ramifications. It deals with bringing into physical reality a change in the relationship to the environment in some manner.

The Brow nodal center deals with the will and means to make decisions and act appropriately in all aspects of life. It is said to be the center of the Ego and consciousness.

The Crown nodal center deals with organismal response to the flutuations in Solar and Stellar radiations through time. This allows the animal to be unconsciously aware of and able to appropriately respond and adjust behaviors to the cycles of the seasons. Humans are to some extent consciously aware of the day/night cycle and the Moon cycle. The Bindu nodal center is the "Black Velvet Space". The center of the awareness of the space where nothing exists in tangible form but everything extsts in possibility. The place of knowledge.

The Incarnational nodal center is the portal for the expression of your soul in this physical body in the present incarnational round of life.


The science of neuroendocrinology is the study of the effects of compounds released by nerve cells upon other cells of the body, both neural and non-neural. By neural I mean a nerve cell and thus non-neural means every other type of cell in the body. Notice that I said cell. These compounds do not affect the extracellular matrix in any manner other than dilution within. The products of the neruoendocrine and hormonal system set the stage for the general events of the daily cycle of life activities.

Pineal Gland (PG)

Indian yogis who use "Third Eye" meditations and exercises refer their students to the center of the forehead between the two eyes. If anything could be called the "center" of the physical brain it would be the PG or epiphysis. In higher vertebrates it rests between the two large cerebrums at the anterior end of the cerebellum. It appears to be a vestige of some one-time larger feature and is shaped like a pine cone. If you were to draw an imaginary line from the center of your forehead crossed by a line through your head at the ears you would have the general location of the pineal body. It is definitely buried deep in the great mass of neurons known as the brain. One fact immediately raises interest: the pineal, in higher animals, is directly connected to the cerebellum.

The cerebellum is one of the oldest features of the brain. It consists of two deeply convoluted hemispheres. Its most important function seems to be coordinating muscular activity in the body. Such activity is initiated by impulses arising in the motor area of the forebrain. These impulses not only travel down the spinal cord to the motor neurons but also pass into the cerebellum. As the body action is carried out, sensory impulses from the proprioceptors, the eyes, the semi-circular canals, etc., are also sent to the cerebellum. The cerebellum then compares the information on what the body is actually doing to what the forebrain had instructed it to do. If a discrepancy exists, the cerebellum sends modifying signals to the forebrain so that appropriate corrective signals can be sent out to the muscles. It is not surprising that birds have relatively large cerebellae when we consider that they must be capable of moving swiftly and accurately in three dimensions of space, while we and other earth-bound animals spend most of our lives moving about on fairly flat surfaces. When thinking of the location of the PG think of it as being near the upper end of the spinal cord. It ends or terminates in the oldest anatomical region in the brain.

Since light on this planet is regulated alternatively day and night (circadian), it would be easy to discern the relation of such cycles to the pineal and other glands. Indeed, this has been shown to be true. The electromagnetic system of the Earth is known to be affected by the Sun, the Moon and the planets in a regular rhythm in both direction and intensity. There are 24 hour cycles in the concentrations of serotonin and melatonin in the PG. There is also a 24 hour cycle in the conversion of the norepinephrine in the sympathetic nerves innervating in the pineal gland. This rhythm persists in blinded rats and animals but is suppressed in normal rats by light. The same rhythm in norepinephrine turnover generates the rhythms in pineal indole-amines and N-acetyltranferase, the enzyme system that makes melatonin and serotonin. Serotonin (5-hydroxy tryptamine) is also produced in the gut of the intestinal tract as well as the PG. Serotonin is one of the commonest neurotransmitters.

The interesting thing about serotonin is its change over to melatonin which occurs chemically in the pineal gland. The PG is the only area where this is done. Melatonin Stimulating Hormone release in darkness results in the release of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) from the pineal and regulates the sleep cycle. But even without visual cues, the level of melatonin in the blood rises and falls on a daily (circadian) cycle with peak levels occurring in the wee hours of the morning. Melatonin is readily available in drug stores and health food stores, and it has become quite popular. Ingesting even modest doses of melatonin raises the melatonin level in the blood to as much as 100 times greater than normal. These levels appear to promote going to sleep and thus help insomnia, to hasten recovery from jet lag and do not have dangerous side effects.

As photoneuroendocrine transducer, the PG modulates many of physiological systems activity according to circadian rhythms. It is a part of the system controlling adaptive reactions of organism on various conditions of environment. The pineal gland belongs to circumventricular organs having no blood-brain barrier. Consequently, this organ is highly sensitive to macromolecular biologically active substances circulating with the cerebral blood flow. Pineal indolamine and peptide hormones influence immune functions. Melatonin, in particular, increases immune memory while T-dependent antigen immunization stimulates the antibody production. Pinealectomy or constant light regime, which suppresses pineal activity, promotes tumor processes, whereas melatonin injections resulted in the decrease of carcinogenesis. Many investigators attach too much importance to melatonin, ignoring the other pineal hormones and pineal function in the day-time. But except melatonin, the pineal gland produces a multitude of peptides. These peptides have a wide range of activity. In particular, they are able to suppress RNA synthesis in tumor cells and to selectively modulate DNA transcription. The most interesting pineal peptides properties are, normalization of general immune functions, supressing tumors, protection against stress, antiaging effects (life extension) and circadian rhythm regulation. The protein Beta-lipotropin, that is produced by the PG, is some 400 amino acids in length. It is cleaved at various points by different enzymes in response to changes in the transcription of DNA. These changes in DNA transcription fluctuate with the rhythmic energy fluctuations of the Heavenly Bodies. The several poly-peptides produced affect the Hypothalamus in different ways, which will be discussed later. The Hypothalamus is the main neuroendocrine target for PG secretions.

Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

The hypothalamus is the ventral part of the diencephalon that forms the floor and part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Anatomically, it includes the preoptic area, optic tract, optic chiasm, mamillary bodies, tuber cinereum, infundibulum, and neurohypophysis (pituitary gland), but for physiological purposes the neurohypophysis is considered a distinct structure. The hypothalamus may be divided into four regions (anterior, dorsalis, intermedia, and posterior) or into three longitudinal zones (periventricular zone, medial zone, and lateral zone). The hypothalamic nuclei constitute that part of the corticodiencephalic mechanism that activates, controls and integrates the peripheral autonomic mechanisms, endocrine activity, and many somatic functions. The hypothalamus secretes vasopressin and oxytocin, which are stored in the pituitary, as well as many releasing factors (hypophysiotropic hormones), by means of which it exerts control over functions of the anterior portion of the pituitary gland.

The main function of the hypothalamus is rheostasis (a more correct term than homeostasis), or maintaining the body's status quo. Factors such as blood pressure, body temperature, fluid and electrolyte balance, and body weight are held to a precise value called the set-point. Although this set-point can migrate over time, from day to day it is remarkably fixed. To achieve this task, the hypothalamus must receive inputs about the state of the body, and must be able to initiate compensatory changes if anything drifts out of whack. The inputs include:

  1. nucleus of the solitary tract - this nucleus collects all of the visceral sensory information from the vagus and relays it to the hypothalamus and other targets. Information includes blood pressure and gut distension.
  2. reticular formation - this catchall nucleus in the brainstem receives a variety of inputs from the spinal cord. Among them is information about skin temperature, which is relayed to the hypothalamus.
  3. retina - some fibers from the optic nerve go directly to a small nucleus within the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This nucleus regulates circadian rhythms, and couples the rhythms to the light/dark cycles.
  4. circumventricular organs - these nuclei are located along the ventricles, and are unique in the brain in that they lack a blood-brain barrier. This allows them to monitor substances in the blood that would normally be shielded from neural tissue. Examples are the OVLT, which is sensitive to changes in osmolarity, and the area postrema, which is sensitive to toxins in the blood and can induce vomiting. Both of these project to the hypothalamus.
  5. limbic and olfactory systems - structures such as the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the olfactory cortex project to the hypothalamus, and probably help to regulate behaviors such as eating and reproduction.

The hypothalamus also has some intrinsic receptors, including thermoreceptors and osmoreceptors to monitor temperature and ionic balance, respectively. Once the hypothalamus is aware of a problem, how does it fix it? Essentially, there are two main outputs:

  1. neural signals to the autonomic system - the (lateral) hypothalamus projects to the (lateral) medulla, where the cells that drive the autonomic systems are located. These include the parasympathetic vagal nuclei and a group of cells that descend to the sympathetic system in the spinal cord. With access to these systems, the hypothalamus can control heart rate, vasoconstriction, digestion, sweating, etc.
  2. endocrine signals to/through the pituitary - recall that an endocrine signal is a chemical signal sent via the bloodstream. Large hypothalamic cells around the third ventricle send their axons directly to the posterior pituitary, where the axon terminals release oxytocin and vasopressin into the bloodstream. Smaller cells in the same area send their axons only as far as the base of the pituitary, where they empty releasing factors into the capillary system of the anterior pituitary. These releasing factors induce the anterior pituitary to secrete any one of at least six hormones, including ACTH and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Ultimately the hypothalamus can control every endocrine gland in the body, and alter blood pressure (through vasopressin and vasoconstriction), body temperature, metabolism (through TSH), and adrenaline levels (through ACTH).

Parts of the hypothalamus that are visible in basal and mid-sagittal views of the gross brain include the mammillary body and the infundibulum (tuber cinereum). The Pituitary Gland, also known as the hypophysis, is a roundish organ that lies immediately beneath the hypothalamus, resting in a depression of the base of the skull called the sella turcica ("Turkish saddle"). In an adult human, the pituitary is roughly the size and shape of a garbonzo bean. The hypophysis is connected to the hypothalmus above it by nerves (posterior pituitary) and by a blood rete (anterior pituitary). The anterior Pituitary is formed by an ascending outpocket of the roof of the mouth that meets with the posterior as a downward extension of the hypothalamus.

The pituitary gland is often portrayed as the "master gland" of the body. Such praise is justified in the sense that the anterior and posterior pituitary secrete a battery of hormones that collectively influence all cells and affect virtually all physiologic processes. The pituitary gland may be king, but the power behind the throne is clearly the hypothalamus. As alluded to in the last section, some of the neurons within the hypothalamus - neurosecretory neurons - secrete hormones that strictly control secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary. The hypothalamic hormones are referred to as releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones, reflecting their influence on anterior pituitary hormones.

Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are carried directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. Specific hypothalamic hormones bind to receptors on specific anterior pituitary cells, modulating the release of the hormone they produce. As an example, thyroid-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus binds to receptors on anterior pituitary cells called thyrotrophs, stimulating them to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH. The anterior pituitary hormones enter the systemic circulation and bind to their receptors on other target organs. In the case of TSH, the target organ is the thyroid gland.

Clearly, robust control systems must be in place to prevent over or under-secretion of hypothalamic and anterior pituitary hormones. A prominent mechanism for control of the releasing and inhibiting hormones is negative feedback.

The following table summarizes the major hormones synthesized and secreted by the pituitary gland, along with summary statements about their major target organs and physiologic effects. Keep in mind that summaries are just that, and ongoing research continues to delineate additional, sometimes very important effects.

----------Hormone Major target organ(s)Major Physiologic Effects
Anterior PituitaryGrowth Hormone Liver, adipose tissuePromotes growth (indirectly), control of protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism
-----Thyroid-stimulating HormoneThyroid glandStimulates secretion of thyroid hormones
-----Adrenocorticotropic HormoneAdrenal gland (cortex) Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids
-----ProlactinMammary GlandMilk production
-----Luteinizing HormoneOvary and TestisControl of reproductive function
-----Follicle-Stimulating HormoneOvary and TestisControl of reproductive function
Posterior PituitaryAntidiuretic HormoneKidneyConservation of body water
-----OxytocinOvaryStimulates milk ejection and uterine contractions
As seen in the table above, the anterior pituitary synthesizes and secreted 6 major hormones. A final point to be made is that individual cells within the anterior pituitary secrete a single hormone (or possibly two in some cases). Thus, the anterior pituitary contains at least six distinctive endocrinocytes.

Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands

The Thyroid Gland is located just below the voicebox. It has 2 major lobes joined by a small isthmas of tissue. Closely associated with the Thyroid are the Parathyroid Glands, one pair on either side (upper & lower). Normal thyroid gland function depends on proper chemical signaling between the thyroid gland, the hypothalamus (the part of the brain where Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone is made), the pituitary and the prostate in males/bulbo-urethral gland in females. The products of the thyroid, thyroxine and triiodothyronine,
  1. regulate the basal metabolic rate of all the cells of the body,
  2. figure prominently in the early development of the central nervous system and growth
  3. are very stable, hydrophobic steroid-like compounds.
The parathyroid gland secretes Calcitonin which regulates blood calcium levels. The sole purpose of the parathyroid glands is to control calcium within the blood in a very tight range between 8.5 and 10.5 mg/ml. In doing so, parathyroid glands also control how much calcium is in the bones, and therefore, how strong and dense the bones are. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has a very powerful influence on the cells of the bones which causes them to release their calcium into the bloodstream. A negative feedback of high calcium levels in the blood result in lower release of PTH. Another way in the parathyroid hormone acts to increase blood levels of calcium is through its influence on the intestines. Under the presence of parathyroid hormone the lining of the intestine becomes more efficient at absorbing calcium normally found in our diet.

Thymus Gland

The thymus gland lies in the upper part of the mediastinum behind the sternum and extends upwards into the root of the neck. It weighs about 10 to 15 gm.(about half an ounce) at birth and begins to grow until the individual reaches puberty when it begins to atrophy. Itís maximum weight is around 30 - 40g (around 1 to 1.5 ounces) by the age of 40 it has returned to itís weight at birth. The thymus consists of two lobes connected by areolar tissue. The lobes are enclosed in a fibrous capsule which dips into their substance dividing them into lobules that consist of an irregular branching framework of epithelial cells and lymphocytes. Lymphocytes originate from haemocytoblasts (stem cells) in red bone marrow. Those that enter the thymus mature and develop into activated T-lymphocytes i.e. able to respond to antigens encountered elsewhere in the body. They then divide into two groups : those that enter the blood, some of which remain in circulation and some lodge in other lymphoid tissue & those that remain in the thymus gland and are the source of future generations of T-lymphocytes. The maturation of the thymus and other lymphoid tissue is stimulated by thymosin, a hormone secreted by the epithelial cells that form the framework of the thymus gland. Involution of the gland begins in adolescence and, with increasing age the effectiveness of T- lymphocyte response to antigens declines.

Islets of Langerhans

The bulk of the pancreas is an exocrine gland secreting pancreatic fluid into the duodenum after a meal. However, scattered through the pancreas are several hundred thousand clusters of cells called "islets of Langerhans". The islets are endocrine tissue containing four types of cells. In order of abundance, they are the:
  1. beta cells, which secrete insulin
  2. alpha cells, which secrete glucagon
  3. delta cells, which secrete somatostatin, and
  4. gamma cells, which secrete a polypeptide that suppresses appetite.

The beta cells of the islets secrete insulin. Insulin is a small protein consisting of an alpha chain of 21 amino acids linked by two disulfide (S-S) bridges to a beta chain of 30 amino acids. Beta cells have channels in their plasma membrane that serve as glucose detectors. Beta cells secrete insulin in response to a rising level of circulating glucose ("blood sugar"). Insulin affects many organs:

  1. Insulin stimulates liver cells to take up glucose from the blood and convert it into glycogen
  2. stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to take up amino acids from the blood and convert them into protein
  3. acts on fat (adipose) cells to stimulate the synthesis of fat.
In each case, insulin triggers these effects by binding to the insulin receptor - a transmembrane protein embedded in the plasma membrane of the responding cells.

The alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon, a polypeptide of 29 amino acids. Glucagon acts principally on the liver where it stimulates the conversion of glycogen into glucose ("glycogenolysis") which is deposited in the blood. Glucagon secretion is stimulated by low levels of glucose in the blood and inhibited by high levels. The physiological significance of this is that glucagon functions to maintain a steady level of blood sugar level between meals.

Taken together, all of these actions result in the storage of the soluble nutrients absorbed from the intestine into insoluble, energy-rich products (glycogen, protein, fat) and a drop in the level of blood sugar.

The delta cells secrete somatostatin. This consists of two polypeptides, one of 14 amino acids (the most active) and one of 28. Somatostatin has a variety of functions. Taken together, they work to reduce the rate at which food is absorbed from the contents of the intestine. Somatostatin is also secreted by the hypothalamus and by the stomach.

The gamma cells of the islets secrete a 36 amino-acid long polypeptide. This polypeptide appears to play a role in appetite suppression.

Gonads & Accessory Sexual Glands

The Gonads are the reproductive organs in which the germ cells are found and the gametes produced. The gonads, or genitals, include the testicles in the male

and the ovaries in the female.

The autonomic nervous system innervates the gonads with both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve pathways. These parasympathetic nerves originate in the spinal cord at the second, third, and fourth sacral vertebrae. The sympathetic nerves of this region originate in the lower portion of the sympathetic trunk, as well as from the hypogastric plexus (which links to the inferior mesenteric ganglion). The genitourinary system includes the urinary and reproductive organs. Because these organs are located in the same area of the body, and share some functions, they often are treated together. The urinary system of both male and female are essentially the same, with the notable exception that the urethra, in the male, continues out through the penis, while, in the female, it opens into the vagina. The reproductive systems of the male and female are each geared toward fulfilling specific roles. The male's is designed to generate sperm cells containing half of the genetic material necessary for the development of a baby and deliver that material to the female's system. The female's reproductive system is designed to generate an ovum, or egg, which carries the other half of the genetic material, to be fertilized by the sperm cells from the male. The female's reproductive tract is also designed to support the gestating fetus until it is born, approximately nine months after fertilization.

Male sex hormones, as a group, are called androgens. The principal androgen is testosterone, which is secreted by the testes. A small amount is also produced by the adrenal cortex. Production of testosterone begins during fetal development, continues for a short time after birth, nearly ceases during childhood, and then resumes at puberty. This steroid hormone is responsible for:

  1. The growth and development of the male reproductive structures
  2. Increased skeletal and muscular growth
  3. Enlargement of the larynx accompanied by voice changes
  4. Growth and distribution of body hair
  5. Increased male sexual drive

Testosterone secretion is regulated by a negative feedback system that involves releasing hormones from the hypothalamus and gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary.

Two groups of female sex hormones are produced in the ovaries, the estrogens and progesterone. These steroid hormones contribute to the development and function of the female reproductive organs and sex characteristics. At the onset of puberty, estrogens promotes:

  1. The development of the breasts
  2. Distribution of fat evidenced in the hips, legs, and breast
  3. Maturation of reproductive organs such as the uterus and vagina

Progesterone causes the uterine lining to thicken in preparation for pregnancy. Together, progesterone and estrogens are responsible for the changes that occur in the uterus during the female menstrual cycle.

Adrenal Cortex & Medulla

Adrenal glands, which are also called suprarenal glands, are small, triangular glands located on top of both kidneys. An adrenal gland is made of two parts: the outer region is called the adrenal cortex and the inner region is called the adrenal medulla. The adrenal glands work interactively with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the following process:
  1. the hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormones, which stimulate the pituitary gland
  2. the pituitary gland, in turn, produces corticotropin hormones, which stimulate the adrenal glands to produce corticosteroid hormones.
Both parts of the adrenal glands, the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla, perform very separate functions.

The adrenal cortex, the outer portion of the adrenal gland, secretes hormones that have an effect on the body's metabolism, on chemicals in the blood, and on certain body characteristics. The adrenal cortex secretes corticosteroids and other hormones directly into the bloodstream. The hormones produced by the adrenal cortex include:

  1. hydrocortisone - this hormone, also known as cortisol, controls the body's use of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  2. corticosterone - this hormone, together with hydrocortisone hormones, suppresses inflammatory reactions in the body and also affects the immune system.
  3. aldosterone - this hormone inhibits the level of sodium excreted into the urine, maintaining blood volume and blood pressure.
  4. androgenic steroids (androgen hormones) - these hormones have minimal effect on the development of male characteristics.

The adrenal medulla, the inner part of the adrenal gland, is not essential to life, but helps a person in coping with physical and emotional stress. The adrenal medulla secretes the following hormones:

  1. epinephrine (also called adrenaline) - this hormone increases the heart rate and force of heart contractions, facilitates blood flow to the muscles and brain, causes relaxation of smooth muscles, helps with conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver, and other activities.
  2. norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) - this hormone has little effect on smooth muscle, metabolic processes, and cardiac output, but has strong vasoconstrictive effects, thus increasing blood pressure.

As you get older, you stop producing the direct precurser to the many sterols-DHEA. DHEA, (pronounced dee-hi-dro-epp-ee-ann-dro-stehr-own), is able to be purchased over the counter in food stores. Go here for good background information- Smart Drug Update. If you find yourself developing food allergies, back off on the dose you are taking. Small persons- 10 mg. once a day in the morning. Large persons- 25 mg. once a day in the morning. More is NOT better! Abuse of DHEA will cause heat in the Heart!!! To check for this, rub the spot on the breast bone midway between the breasts. If this spot is sore, you have Heart heat! Stop taking DHEA and massage this spot until the soreness goes away. This will take some time, not right away.


What conclusions may we bring from this information? One conclusion is that it is not so easy to simplify various distinct systems into a neat little package. It is easy to forget that the wisdom of the ancients is of an earlier time of lesser understanding. For any systematic presentation of a body of knowledge to remain static is to be left behind in oblivion.

In this case we have attempted to show that at least four elements are merged in a conceptual framework: Subtle Energies, Neuroendocrine & Hormonal products, Human Behaviors and Central Nervous System Integration.


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  2. The Motor System-Neuroanatomy Review:
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  4. 1: Endocr Res. 2001 Feb-May;27(1-2):143-52. Prostate-thyroid axis: prostatic TRH is one of the stimulators of thyroid hormone. Maran RR, Ravichandran K, Arunakaran J. Department of Endocrinology, University of Madras, Chennai, India.

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