VOLUME TWO Part Two
Resonance - the Primordial Principle of Life
What are resonances and what significance do they have for the organism and life in general? Man is able to "see" only a very small part of the entire electromagnetic spectrum as visible light. The ratio of interaction and resonance quanta(photons) to particles of matter(nucleons) is a constant of Nature which has the extremely high value of 9.746 x 10E +8 quanta to one nucleon. Thus, the science which only looks at matter covers only one billionth of all the phenomena in the Cosmos and therefore draws unilateral and incorrect conclusions.
Using examples from acoustics and electronics, an explanation follows in order to make the processes which takes place in the atoms and molecules of the cells with almost instantaneous speed and complexity. Resonance between oscillating particles is a primordial principle in the Cosmos. The word "resonance" comes from the latin meaning something along the lines of "sounding back", "co-oscillating" and "reverbrating". A familiar example is the amplification of resonance in musical instruments by a sounding board, as with a piano or violin. The notes which are produced mechanically(friction) by passing the strings of the bow over the strings of the violin, are amplified by the bridge on the body of the violin and set in motion the vibrations in the air which we perceive as sound. These acoustic waves are perceived by the organ of Corti in the inner ear and set the cilia in motion which match the "resonant" frequency of the perceived waves originating in the violin in motion. This then is transmitted to the brain and interpreted as sound. What conditions need to be met for such a system to work? In electronics, information is emitted from a transmitter to a receiver. Only if the receiver is tuned to the same frequency of the transmitter can the information be perceived. The receiver must resonate at the same frequency as the transmitter. These same phenomena occur with the interactions of molecules and photons in all matter. Thus, the phenomenon of resonance can be observed in the complete range of natural sciences and has a special significance in medicine as will be elucidated.
Homeopathic preparations have an anology in acoustics. If one lifts the damper off the strings on a piano and sings a note out loud, the string which is in exact resonance with the sung note will resonate with it. In exactly the same manner, in the human body the resonator which is in resonance with the oscillation of an administered medicine responds. A resonator is an acoustic, mechanical, electromagnetic or biological system whose individual parts are tuned to a particular frequency and on being excited by a signal with this precise frequency starts to oscillate, i.e., resonate with the signal.
But what are these oscillations? Oscillations are also referred to as resonances. They are changes in states or state quantities, periodical in time, in physical or biological systems(resonators) in which the states of equilibrium are disturbed. What are known as restoring forces act to restore the equilibrium. These are referred to as homeostasis(unperturbed states) and homeostatic mechanisms to restore equilibrium in living organisms which have been moved from equilibrium by a perturbing resonance.
Waves, by comparison, are also periodical processes in space and time, in which energy or signals or information are transported through the Cosmos. The two terms, oscillations and waves, are often used synonymously. If two or more arbitrarily chosen oscillations of the same type are mixed, they are superimposed one upon the other. This superimposition may cause a harmonious or disharmonious sound in the case of which keys are played on the piano, as an example. The resultant superimposition wave is the sum of the amplitudes of the individual superimposed waves. A special case is where two superimposed waves of exactly the same amplitude are phase-shifted by 180 degrees. In this case they cancel each other out and the wave collapses and dissipates.
Another case of interest is that of beat frequency. An example is again drawn from the piano. In a piano, we link several stings together for an individual note to be played, which must be tuned to each other. If, however, they have only slightly different frequencies, an audible fluctuating sound is heard which is common in out-of-tune pianos. The intensity of this beat frequency becomes lower as the more precisely the strings are tuned in unison. This becomes important since this beat frequency may be picked up as a signal in all physical systems as amplitude modulation.
Oscillations as just described take place in elementary particles and atoms. In atoms, the nucleon is surrounded by electrons in defined spaces referred to as orbitals. The electrons are in constant motion in the Hz and kHz range at normal temperature. When energy is applied from without the atomic system, electrons move to higher orbitals and return to their normal levels with the emission of discrete quanta of light or photon. according to the movement of the electrons through the various orbitals in which it "jumps", the frequency and amplitude of emitted photons is not constant but frequency- and amplitude-modulated. Thus, the oscillation in the light frequency range are both slightly frequency-modulated and amplitude-modulated. Light has frequencies in the vicinity of 1 x 10E +15 Hz but also, thus, in lower frequency ranges. For every color in the spectrum(monochromatic light frequency) there is a particular low frequency spectrum also.
We now turn to water as an example of the ways in which a molecule can oscillate. Water is crosslinked due to its molecular configuration and internal electron orbital distribution. Water is comprised of one relatively large oxygen atom and two relatively minute hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen atoms have a bond angle between them of 104.5 degrees. The oxygen atom is electron greedy and the electrons therefore spend most of their time about the oxygen atom. These two factors cause a polar distribution then of overall charge on the water molecule. The oxygen end is reletively (-) while the hydrogen ends are relatively (+). This then accounts for the properties of being an excellent solvent, lighter than liquid water as ice(solid) and a liquid crystal. Water may be clustered as several hundred molecules at room or body temperature.
The following oscillation properties of the molecule can be identified:
Now comes a discourse on signal detection and noise which is relevant to understanding the biological condition. Not only do the atoms in the molecular structure oscillate but the whole molecule itself performs a wild zig-zag movement at normal temperature known as "Brownian Movement" after the scientist who described the phenomenon. There is a similar effect of the electrons in metals and semiconductors. This chaotic movement of electrons can be heard as hiss in the speaker of electronics. In this case, these interfering frequencies are known as background noise or "Nyquist Noise" after the scientist who discovered them. The higher the temperature of the metal, the wilder the movements of the molecules and free electrons, for this reason it is also called "Thermal Noise".
Many times the signal-to-noise ratio is so poor that the signal we are interested in is buried in the noise, the amplitude of the signal is too low, the maximum amplitudes of the signals are lower than the amplitudes of the noise frequencies. This brings us to the topic of signal recognition. What we look for is a particular frequency in the background of many frequencies. To do this, we are going to the analogy of the radio. A radio station transmits on one particular frequency which our radio is able to receive with a particular narrow bandwidth characteristic of the radio, not just one frequency. We pick up the carrier signal even though no amplitude modulation of the carrier wave is being transmitted, as an intermission. We do the same for a molecule by running a frequency analysis of all the "carrier" signals which are characteristic of the molecule. Using a multi-channel analyzer, the irregular signals of the thermal noise are cancelled out and the previouly hidden constant signals are made visible. This requires a certain amount of time to complete, the more hidden the frequency, the longer the time required but definitely possible. Now we need to know what frequencies to look for in the biological realm in relation to healthy and diseased cells, tissues and organs.