Volume Thirteen
January 2006

The Basis of Clinical Diagnosis
in Bioelectromagnetic Medicine
E. F. Block IV


As with every medical schema, the ultimate basis of all clinical evaluation of the patient for the determination of a diagnosis is dependent upon observable changes in surface or internal anatomy of the body or measurable changes in the physiology of the body. These changes constitute the manifestations as signs that with experience have been correlated with various disease states within the body. The intent of this article is to discuss both the changes in surface or internal anatomy and physiology of the body and the various means that those in the field of bioelectromagnetic medicine utilize in order to assess those changes. The standard methods of diagnosis for Western medical diagnosis may be obtained from a medical school textbook such as "Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking" by Lynn S. Bickley, 2003, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and for Traditional Chinese Medicine may be found in such Oriental medicine school textbooks as "Diagnosis in Chinese Medicine, A Comprehensive Guide" by Giovanni Maciocia, 2004, Churchill Livingstone. Those that work in Bioelectromagnetic medicine utilize two additional methods in developing a diagnosis. These are Kirilian photography and Electro-Acupuncture according to Dr. Voll (EAV) and their developments. It is with these two additional methods that this article will be concerned.


Kirilian Photography

Kirlian photography is a way of representing the energy of the body in visual form on polaroid film or the like. Since discovered by inventors Semyon and Valentina Kirlian in 1939, the technique has been researched and refined by independent labs and health practitioners throughout the globe. A russian technician, Semyon D. Kirlian, was repairing equipment in a hospital when he noticed that through the interaction of electric currents and photographic plates, imprints of living organisms developed on film. Kirlian and his wife Valentina entered into a search for knowledge that lasted all their life. Valentina died in 1972, Semyon in 1978. Due to the book titled "Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain" by S. Ostrander and L. Schroeder, the work of Kirlians became known in USA. Hundreds of papers and tens of books were subsequently published concerning this method of diagnosis. A lot of interesting observations and a set of statistical correlations were collected. Most of the researchers were using photopaper techniques. During the period of 1983 to 1986, I. Dumitresku in Romania, P. Mandel in Germany, N. Melhomens in Brazil developed different approaches to diagnostics using the electrophotographic process.

Kirlian photography introduces a high frequency, high voltage, ultra low current to the object being photographed. In traveling through and reacting with the complex systems of the body, this influx of electrical energy amplifies and makes visible the biological and energetic exchange systems. The camera and the subject interact to produce a corona of multifrequency energy waves, from low infrared to well past the visible spectrum. Researchers analyze the nature of the discharge channels, their geometry, and energetics to elucidate diagnosis, most usually that of cancer. Sharp flashes of energy occur in stress situations and is useful in evaluating the gravity of a patient's condition. Kirlian diagnosis can be done with a person as a whole or with their tissues. The photographs can be used for dramatic before and after photos to illustrate the effectiveness of treatments or to monitor changes over time. The information revealed by the images can be interpreted and used as a diagnostic tool. Using diagnostic systems developed by Peter Mandel and Dr. Korotkov, it is said to be possible to detect very early signs of disease and energy blockages. Kirlian photography is contact photography. The object or person to be photographed must touch the film directly. For humans, photographs are usually taken of the fingertips or hands. As the acupuncture organ meridians end in the fingertips, energy blockages or excesses will show up as empty spaces or flares. Again, using a diagnostic system developed by Peter Mandel and Dr. Konstantin Korotkov, a great deal of information about the psycho-physical body can be learned. Tens of thousands of case studies have been examined in the development of the fingertip diagnostic technique.

K.G.Korotkov in 1995 reported on an improved method of Kirilian diagnosis using what was described as a Gas Discharge Visualization Technique (GDV). Using a set of special computerized equipment, techniques were developed and is successfully used in many kinds of studies of both physiological and pathological states. Using a special electrode system, a high intensity electric field is created around an object, producing a gas discharge whose glow can be seen and measured. Such a discharge can be produced around any object and will show variations in size, colour, distribution, etc. depending on very slight changes in the object, such as cannot be revealed by other techniques. These changes are said to include the electrical properties of an object, its emission characteristics, gas evaporation and energy exchange with the environment. In the case of living organisms the method reveals its complex reaction to external and internal factors. A whole range of subtle influences can become manifest. For example, it is reported to be able to register the influence of the type of food eaten, medicines administered, and a number of environmental factors, such as exposure to pollution. Even minute-to-minute changes in the state of a person's mind can be easily seen in changes in the GDV system. My personal experience with one of these devices demonstrates that one needs to be a "techie" because of the multiple software and hardware components.

Electro-Acupuncture according to Dr. Voll (EAV)

EAV has come a long way from the development of the original technique of Dr. Voll to the instruments that are used to diagnose the condition of the meridians of a patient. EAV was developed 50 years ago by the German doctor Reinhard Voll. Back in the late 1940's, Dr. Reinholt Voll, MD began an investigation of the effects of electricity on the human physiology. In his studies, Dr. Voll used a technique known as Impedance or OHM metering. In simple terms, some materials are very electrically conductive, for example metals like steel and copper, electricity flows very easily through metals and therefore there is no substantial resistance on the electricity flowing through the metal. Other materials are not conductive, for example wood or rubber, and since these materials are not conductive, their resistance to electrical current is very high. An OHM meter measures electrical resistance (impedance), and it is also capable of measuring conductance since the inverse of resistance (1/resistivity approximately), is conductance.

Dr. Voll found that if he tested the electrical conductance on any general area of the human body, there was a fairly high level of electrical resistance. This is a curious point since it is known that the body has a large volume of electrically conductive fluids within it. But, the skin is very resistant, by its nature to electrical current. Dr. Voll also found that at certain specific locations on the anatomy, the electrical flow is much more conductive, and these points generally correspond to the Eastern Medical Acupuncture points. Therefore, you can use an impedance or OHM meter to test the acupuncture points. This is somewhat simplistic, but it does describe the basic process of EAV. EAV Testing indirectly measures the "Energetic System" of the body. It does not measure the physiology, the biochemistry or the pathology components of the human body. However, the "Energetic System" is related to these components, from the standpoint of physics, not chemistry.

EAV is based on the classic Chinese method of acupuncture and its theory of the energy force of the human body, organ subsystems and rhythmic functional cycles. There is an energetic, dynamic balance between human organs and tissue and the acupuncture points via the meridian systems. The therapist measures changes in electrical conductivity at the acupuncture points on the skin of the hands and feet, using a point electrode. This examination makes it possible to measure the functional connections between the meridians, organs and tissues. The energetic condition of the human body is known to be affected by harmful environmental influences, drugs, toxins, insecticides (pesticides), viruses, bacteria, dental material, energy and blood stagnation and disrupted energy fields. These factors, for the most part intangible, can be diagnosed by EAV without the need for invasive surgery or laboratory tests. Energetic processes and malfunctions can also indicate the onset of problems in certain organs, allowing the early diagnosis of a disease. Any part of the human body can become a hot spot or disrupted field caused by inflammations, depositions of pathological secretions or injuries (scars). Hot spots can spread to have effects far away from the initial cause and in time can enter the human defence system and weaken it. The effect of many hot spots building up often leads to chronic and drug-resistant illnesses. EAV is particularly effective for the treatment of chronic pain and conditions and for countering the energy blocking effect of hot spots. The technique locates the hot spot as well as other parts of the body that have been damaged as a result of it. The remote actions of a hot spot follow Chinese acupuncture meridians. In this way, pain caused by a rheumatic condition for example, follows the diseased kidney and bladder meridian channel. An infected tooth can have a harmful effect on associated organ systems through a channel leading to arthritis, headaches or back pain. In the past, Chinese doctors discovered the meridians and distributions by examining the way in which pain spread.

The meridians do have some form of energy, but it is not electricity. There is a controversy about the validity of Acupuncture because scientists cannot measure the energetic system of the body directly, i.e. they cannot prove that acupuncture meridians exists using conventional measurements. It is important that you keep this fact in mind. EAV does not directly measure the acupuncture meridian or energetic system of the body directly. This is not scientifically possible at this time. But, there is a bio-physiological phenomenon that occurs when you run electricity through the acupuncture points. The electrical flow (conductance) gives an indication of the energetic health status of the meridian that is being measured. For example, if you are testing the Stomach Meridian with an EAV instrument, the meter will give an indication of the energetic status of the Stomach Meridian. Remember, the energetic system is not electrical, but we can use electricity to indirectly measure the status of the energetic system.

The EAV/OHM meter gives a conductance reading and there is intrinsic value in this; however the actual reason that we can use EAV to evaluate the meridians is because, as Dr. Voll discovered, there is a Universal Baseline for the meidians. Regardless of who is tested, no matter what their age, weight, sex, nationality or race, a steady reading of 50 with no change over time (no indicator drop), is an indication of an energetically healthy meridian. Readings that are significantly above 50 (65 plus) indicate inflammation, and this is due to the fact that when tissue becomes inflamed, the concentration of body fluids increases and therefore the conductance will increase accordingly. This inflammation occurs in the affected tissue and also in the proximity of the related acupuncture point(s) as well. When a reading is significantly lower than 50 (below 30) then it is believed that this meridian has low energy or is possibly degenerative. When a reading steadily drops in value from a high point downwards, this is known as an "Indicator Drop" (ID), and it can point to a weakness or disturbance in the meridian involved.

Below is a graphic description of the Voll Scale of usage with EAV and what each state signifies.

Every EAV instrument is an OHM meter, i.e. it measures one thing - electrical impedance.


From a utility viewpoint, it seems to me that EAV is much easier to learn and use than Kirilian Photography. As with every technique, both methods need to be learned and become familiar with in order for the therapist to become proficient in their work. I will say that the results of both the EAV machine that I used and the GDV machine that I used, they were in the same location, were in complete agreement as to analysis outcome. This is good confirmation that was corroborated by equipment at another location used within days of each other. All manufacturers of the various equipment for sale make claims for the equipment that they manufacture. Before you invest in any equipment, I would suggest that you go visit someone that is using the equipment that you are thinking about buying and using. Many times you are able see equipment in use at continuing education sessions, conventions and health fairs. Nothing works as well as tinkering with the equipment yourself. Also, Dr. Korotkov will train you in the usage of the GDV at his facilities in St. Petersburg, Russia.

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