Volume Eleven
January 2005

Discussions on Correlations Between
Oriental and Occidental Medicine
E. F. Block IV


The Human Primate Organism (HPO) is the same regardless of cultural bias. While there is some diversity in the HPO genome, we are all still capable of interbreeding and thus still one species by definition. The means that those in the Orient and Occident have chosen to conceptualize their view of the human body in a culturally biased manner. Those in the Orient had chosen to place balanced bioscalar energy as the central concept relating to the health of the HPO. Those in the Occident had chosen to place the scientific method as the central concept relating to the health of the HPO. This fact can be directly attributed to the emphasis in the Orient to what is called "Right Brain" thinking as opposed to the emphasis in the Occident to what is called "Left Brain" thinking. A detailed presentation of the differences between these two polar opposites may be found here. As the directed use of bioscalar energy by humans has not been shown to be possible by Western science, it does not exist in the Occidental academe formally as yet. In the Orient, Qi Gong (pronounced Chee Gung) masters have detailed the flow of energies within the HPO and its generation in the two Dan Tian, one in the head and one in the belly. In the Orient, patient intake regards the changes in the physical, mental and emotional beingness of the HPO as signs and symptoms of disease. The HPO is looked upon as a whole and any changes are noted for the individual due to their unique constitution. In the Occident, signs and symptoms of disease are noted only for changes in the physical beingness of the HPO. Changes in the emotional and mental beingness of the HPO are relagated to the psychologists and psychiatrists. The HPO is looked at as one of many persons with a central tendency about an average or mean for the population at large. Thus the essential difference between Oriental and Occidental Medicine is that of conceptualizing the patient as unique unto themselves as an individual or as one of many HPOs exhibiting the characteristics of an averaged population.

As I said, we are dealing with the same HPO, just relating to the diseased state in different manners. The concepts of TCM may seem overly simplified to the Western scientist and completely wrong in light of what is known about the human body and its physiology. But one must keep in mind that the concepts of TCM were developed beginning some 6000 years ago. Both owe much of its conceptual medical knowledge base to the information derived from the very well developed medical practices of ancient India via Tibet. Both are based upon experience, observation and application of treatments that either work or are discarded. Both are empirically and pragmatically based. Oriental Medicine has a history of some 6000 years while Occidental Medicine has some 2000 years of history. Occidental Medicine has used the scientific method for some 400 years and in the opinion of the author, has not been able to match the elegance of Oriental Medicine. TCM is rapidly integrating the advances of WM into its theoretical framework without loosing its unique perspective. In return, WM is beginning to realize that a strict "left brain" approach to medicine is not working. Both camps are better at some aspects of medicine than the other. Both have their place in the affairs of the HPO. This work attempts to show the correspondences between these two endeavors of human medical expression.


Let us start with what is called "Diagnosis and Differentiation of Syndromes" (D&DS) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Four concepts named the "Eight Principles" play a central role in D&DS in TCM: Yin/Yang, Excess/Deficiency, Hot/Cold, Internal/External. Each will be discussed in turn. The method of identification of disease patterns according to the "Eight Principles" is the theoretical basis for all treatment and is applicable in every case. There are no direct counterparts in Western Medicine (WM) for these concepts of TCM. The D&DS concepts of TCM were developed centuries before the germ theory was developed by Louis Pasteur in the 1870's. This fact coupled with the "Right Brain" bias in conceptualization yielded a comprehensive means of determining the treatment regime to be applied to an individual based upon their signs and symptoms of dis-ease in that individual as a whole. Western medicine likens the HPO as a machine and looks at only the broken component that needs repair. In WM the signs and symptoms of the broken component are utilized in order to repair only that component, separate from the HPO as a whole.


It is ultimately the balance between the polar opposites of Yin and Yang in the HPO that plays the primary role in TCM. All aspects of Oriental Medicine have been developed to re-establish this balance. The concept of Yin/Yang is a theoretical method for observing and analyzing the phenomena of our World. They may represent a continuum between two polar opposites, as well as different and opposing aspects within the same phenomenon. The balance between the two is always relative. The theory characterizes the following aspects:

  1. The Opposition of Yin and Yang
  2. The Interdependence of Yin and Yang
  3. The Inter-Consuming-Supporting Relationship of Yin and Yang
  4. The Inter-Transforming Relationship of Yin and Yang
  5. The Infinite Divisibility of Yin and Yang

With this theoretical background in mind, let us discuss the application of this theory to TCM.

  1. Yin-Yang and the organic structure of the HPO

    The HPO is an integrated whole. All the organ systems and anatomical relations are interconnected and may be divided into polar opposites. Examples are the head-tail, left-right, front-back, inside-outside, positive-negative, active-passive, solid organs-hollow organs, heart-yin and heart-yang, etc.

  2. Yin-Yang and the physiological functions of the HPO

    Functional activities pertain to Yang and nutrient substances pertain to Yin. Functional activites are the capability for metabolic transformations, energy production/utilization and movement (intracellular, intercellular and organismal). Nutrient substances relates to water, gases, electrolytes, protein, carbohydrates, fats, etc.

  3. Yin-Yang and the pathological changes in the HPO

    TCM considers that the occurence of disease results from an imbalance between Yin and Yang. This imbalance results in a relative excess or deficiency of either. The cause and development of imbalance leading to disease is related to both the antipathogenic Qi of the person and to pathogenic factors. Pathogenic factors are of two types, Yin and Yang. Antipathogenic Qi involves Yin fluid and Yang Qi. Qi is a term relating to energy and force and is Yang. Yin is matter, the material substance of the Earth.

    When a Yang pathogenic factor initiates an imbalance, this may induce an excess of Yang in the body that consumes Yin and gives rise to Heat syndromes. Conversely, when a Yin pathogen invades the body, this may damage Yang and lead to Cold Syndromes. When a deficiency of Yang fails to control Yin, Deficiency and Cold may appear in which Yang is deficient and Yin is excessive. When a deficiency of Yin fluid fails to restrict Yang, Deficiency and Heat Syndromes may appear in which Yin is deficient and Yang is hyperactive.

  4. Yin-Yang as a guide to clinical diagnosis and treatment in the HPO

    As stated, the root cause for the occurence and the development of any disease is an imbalance between the Yin and Yang of the HPO. Thus, however complicated and changeable the manifestations of a disease may seem, it is possible to identify the linking elements and effectively analyze the root cause. Yin-Yang is the basis for the differentiation of syndromes according to the Eight Principles. The Exterior, Heat and Excess are Yang while the Interior, Cold and Deficiency are Yin. In complicated clinical situations, a simplified and correct diagnosis may thusly be determined. As the intent of treatment is to balance Yin-Yang, the basic principle of TCM is to adjust the relative aspects of Yin-Yang in order to stabilize Yin, conserve Yang and the concomitant restoration of harmony between them. The function of acupuncture is to adjust the Qi of Yin-Yang.

    What are the possible correlations between Yin-Yang and Western Science? Yang correlates to Male, External, Positive, Right, Caudal, Dorsal, Ectoderm, the Central Nervous System (CNS-environmental aspects), the Sympathetic component of the CNS (stimulates voluntary muscle activity), the Myenteric Plexus of Auerbach of the ENS (stimulates gut smooth muscle) the "solid" organs (Lung, Spleen, Heart, Kidney, Liver-dealing with metabolism) and acupuncture. Yin correspondes to Female, Internal, Negative, Left, Rostral, Ventral, Endoderm, The Enteric Nervous Systen (ENS-internal aspects), the Parasympathetic component of the CNS (sedates voluntary muscle activity), the Submucosal Plexus of Meissner of the ENS (stimulates secretion) the "hollow" organs (Large Intestine, Stomach, Small Intestine, Urinary Bladder, Gallbladder-dealing with nutrient and waste) and herbs. The relative balance between Yin-Yang may be likened to the WM concept of Homeostasis. A lack of homeostasis in WM correlates with the cause of disease. Homeostasis refers to the functional activities of the organ systems in maintaining an optimum internal environment for cellular life within the HPO. The chemistry of biological fluids as relating to homeostasis plays a key role in WM diagnosis and may be related to Yin. The functional activities of the organs of the HPO in WM relate to Yang. For a more complete discussion on the concepts of homeostasis from an Occidental perspective, please go here.

    Many of the diseases of the HPO may be summed up in the folowing phrases: When Yin prevails, there is Cold; when Yang prevails, there is heat. When Yang is vacuous, there is Cold; when Yin is vacuous, there is heat. The causes of these conditions is an imbalance between Yin and Yang, a surfit or deficit of either.


The meaning of the concepts of the polar opposites of excess and deficiency is well known. Excess is also related as Repletion (Replete) and Fullness (Full). Deficiency is also related as Vacuity (Vacant) or Emptyness (Empty). If one of the polar opposites prevails, then the opposite is surfit. The differentiation between Excess and Deficiency in TCM is critical as it relates to the presence or absence of a pathogenic factor and the strength of the energies of the HPO. The Excess condition in TCM is characterized by the presence of a pathogenic factor(s) and the fact that the defensive systems of the HPO are stong. The defensive systems resist the pathogen(s) and the result is a multitude of signs and symptoms. The Deficiency condition is characterized by a weakness of the energy/Qi of the body and the absence of a pathogenic factor. If the Qi of the body is weak and a pathogenic factor persists, the condition is one of a Deficiency complicated with Excess. Observation of the signs and symptoms of the HPO determine the distinction between Excess and Deficiency. For example: acute, red, loose stools is Excess and chronic, pale, constipated is Deficiency.


Exterior-Interior refers to the location of the disease. An Exterior condition means that the skin, muscles and acupuncture channels are affected. The Interior means the organs and bones are affected. Conditions due to the invasion of the body by an external pathogenic factor is called an exterior pattern. The onset of exterior patterns is acute and a correct treatment will bring about a rapid recovery. Conditions due to the disharmony of the internal organs is called an interior pattern. The cause of the disharmony may be from an external or internal source but is defined and treated as internal.


The nature of a disease pattern is described as Hot or Cold and depends upon whether they are combined with an Excess or Deficiency condition. Excess-Heat manifestations are fever, thirst, a feeling of heat, red face, red eyes, constipation, scanty dark urine, a rapid pulse and a red tongue with yellow coating. Deficiency-Heat manifestations are afternoon fever, a dry mouth, night sweats, a feeling of heat in the chest, palms and soles, dry stools, scanty dark urine, a floating pulse and a red-peeled tongue. Excess-Cold manifestations are chilliness, cold limbs, absence of thirst, pale face, abdominal pain aggravated by pressure, ingestion of cold drinks and foods, a desire to drink warm liquids, loose stools, abundant clear urine, a deep-tight pulse and a tongue with thick white coating. Deficiency-Cold manifestations are chilliness, cold limbs, a dull-pale face, absence of thirst, dull abdominal pain relieved by pressure, listlessness, a desire to drink warm liquids, loose stools, abundant clear urine, a sallow-white face, a deep-weak pulse and a pale tongue with a thin white coating.

There are no direct correlations in WM for Exterior-Interior, Hot-Cold or Excess-Deficiency.

The Five Elements

The Five Elements in TCM are the result of observing phenomenal processes in the daily life and deriving a concept that all the phenomena of the World are the products of the movement and mutation of the qualities of Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal and Water. In ancient Greece, Hippocrates described Four Elements as playing a role in the development of medical theory. They were Fire, Earth, Metal and Water. These four elements have survived into modern times in the Occident as part of Astrology and Neurophysiology (The Macrocosm Within). The science of Physics has progressed considerably since those times. In ancient China, this Five Element Theory was applied to the disease process and has had considerable influence in the development of physiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and pharmacology. As there is no direct correlation in WM to the Five Element theory, please read from the texts listed in the bibliography for detailed information or go here. The usage of this Five Element theory in TCM is consistent, relevant and yields excellent clinical results.

The Concept of Qi, Blood, Essence and Fluids

In TCM, the basic elements of all physiological activity in the HPO are Qi, Blood, Essence and Fluids. Qi is said to vitalize the body, be responsible for all activity, warms the body and is Yang in nature. The sustenance of the HPO is due to Blood and Fluids. These nourish and moisten the entire organism and are Yin in nature. The basis for physical development and reproduction is due to Essence. Essence is described as the stored surplus of the HPO and the basis for Blood and Fluid production. All the changes that the HPO undergoes in its lifetime is due to the interaction of Qi, Blood, Fluids and Essence.

The concept of Qi is a somewhat difficult subject to comprehend. This is due partly to the manner in which ancient Chinese thought developed through the centuries concerning the nature of Qi and in part to how the functional Qi of the various organs of the HPO are conceptualized and described. At first in ancient China, Qi was described as a subtle form of matter since the Chinese had no concept of energy as opposed to matter. Later with the development of Qi Gong, Qi was said to be part of the Qi of the universe that flows within the acupuncture meridians of the HPO. Thus, Qi cannot be translated into English either as matter or as energy per se. In the context of TCM, it is thought to be the fundamental constituent of the body and without it; the HPO is not able to exist. In correlation to WM conceptualization, Qi is both the force behind all cellular metabolic activities (energetics) and the flow of Bio-Scalar energy within the HPO for directed purpose (metabolism).

In TCM, Qi has five basic functions:

  1. Activation of all aspects of the HPO
  2. Warming the HPO in order to maintain body temperature
  3. Defense of the HPO against external pathogens
  4. Transportation and distribution of all the substances within the HPO
  5. Containment of all substances within the HPO

In all cases, Qi is to be regarded as an active force, always in motion, that maintains the integrity of the HPO. In TCM then, Qi is used to denote both the essential substances of the HPO that maintain its vital activities and the functional activities of the organ-systems and tissues. The essential substances are the basis of all functional activities and its existence is only seen as a manifestation of the functions of the organ-systems. It must be noted that ALL vital activities of the HPO are explained by the changes in and movement of Qi.

As in WM, in TCM, Blood is a red liquid that circulates in the vessels that provides both moisture and vital nutrient substances to the body. Blood is said to be formed both from food derived nutrients and the functional activities of various internal organs. In TCM, Blood is the material foundation for the physical substance of the body and mental activities as in WM. It is only in the last few hundred years since advances in staining techniques and microscopy have been developed that WM shows Blood to be both liquid (plasma) and formed elements (RBCs & WBCs).

In TCM, Body Fluid is a collective term for all the normal fluids of the body that includes saliva, gastric juice, intestinal juice, synovial fluid, tears, nasal secretions, sweat and urine. In WM, body fluid is reserved for what is called interstitial fluid only. All else is regarded as a secretion. Interstitial fluid is different from blood only in plasma proteins and formed elements that normally remain in the vessels. Water, electrolytes, nutrients, wastes and gasses are the same if but different in quantity. In TCM, body fluid is said to moisten and nourish the various parts of the body, much the same as is in WM. However, TCM distinguishes two forms of Body Fluid- clear and thin (Jing) vs. turbid and thick (Ye). Jing is said to be distributed on the surface of the muscles to warm and nourish the muscles and skin. Ye is said to be stored in the joints and orifices to moisten the joints, strengthen the brain and marrow and to nourish the orifices. In the parlance of WM, Jing seems to be more related to Interstitial fluid and Ye to the various secretions of the tissues.

In TCM, Blood is said to always follow Qi. Qi and Blood are inseparable. If one looses Blood, one also looses Qi. The main cause of most diseases is the stagnation of Qi and Blood somewhere in the exterior or interior of the body. If Qi is deficient, the organs may not be able to generate body fluid. Conversely, the accumulation of body fluid may impair the movement of Qi. As the origin of both Blood and Body Fluid are the same, a lose of any one will affect the other (as in hemorrhage or diarrhea).

The Zang-Fu Organs

The theoretical foundation of TCM was developed without detailed human dissection and without the knowledge of modern physiology. Much of what was learned about human anatomy was from correspondences to butchered animals for meat, the aftermath of battle and import from other cultures (Ayurvedic Medicine and surgery from India via Tibet). One breaths, hears the heart beating, eats food/drink and then later urinates and defecates, cuts oneself and bleeds, notices signs and symptoms tied to various disease conditions that leads eventually to the development of a theory of medicine according to the philosophy and understanding by Chinese physicians of those ancient times. The only reason that TCM exists today is that it works! The concepts may not be able to stand the hard scrutiny in terms of modern science, but it works! And it works very well within its limitations. Consequently, the function of the Zang-Fu organs in TCM is a mixture of anatomy and physiology that is compartmentalized by WM into the various organ systems of the body. Thus when one talks about any of the Zang-Fu organs in TCM, it is about physical, emotional and mental aspects of beingness that have been correlated to a particular organ in addition to the ascribed functional activities attributed to that organ. What can I say but that in terms of a consistent theoretical background for treatment, it works very well clinically! How could it not and have survived for over 6000 years? The integrated theory of the Zang-Fu was formed through a long period of clinical observation and practice.

Zang-Fu is the term for the various internal organs of the HPO in TCM. There are six Zang organs, six Fu organs and the extra Fu organs. The six Zang organs are known as the solid organs and are the Heart, Lung, Spleen, Liver, Kidney and Pericardium. The six Fu organs are known as the hollow organs and are the Small Intestine, Large intestine, Stomach, Gallbladder (storage of bile for digestion), Urinary Bladder and the Three Bowels (Cavities). The Brain, Marrow, Bones, Vessels, Gallbladder (waste receptacle of the Liver) and Uterus are known as the extra Fu organs.

The primary function of the Zang organs is to manufacture and store essential substances that includes vital essence, Qi, Blood and Body Fluid. As one might surmise, it is the function of the Fu organs to receive, digest and absorb food/water and to transmit and excrete wastes. The extra Fu organs have a mixture of functions.

The Zang organs may be different from the Fu organs in location and function but there exists a connection between individual Zang organs and Fu organs via the meridians and collaterals. This connection also extends between the Zang-Fu collectively and between the Zang-Fu and the five sense organs and tissues. More on the meridians and collaterals later.

The theory of the Zang-Fu organs includes not only the physiological functions of the organs but also the pathological changes of the Zang and Fu organs and their interrelationships. This concept was known by ancient doctors as the "Zang Xiang", which means Organ Image. The concept is key to diagnosis and refers to the internal location of the organs and the physiological activities and pathological changes in the organs as reflected on the surface of the body. Finally, the Zang-Fu theory involves the study of the physiological functions and the pathological changes of the organs, tissues and their interrelationships on one hand and the physiology and pathology of Vital Essence, Qi, Blood and Body Fluid on the other.

The correlations of the organs of the HPO in terms of WM is similar to that of TCM. However, TCM ascribes physical, emotional and mental aspects to the individual organs that do not correlate to concepts found in WM. This is due to the fact that the Chinese had no concept of the Nervous System. But what is very important for those in WM is the fact that TCM has recognized the emotional and mental aspects of beingness associated with the organs. Again, please refer to the information located here for a synopsis or read the texts cited in the bibliography. This is not as strange as it may seem to WM as TCM treats the whole individual according to their constitution (ultmately genetically based) and is an expression of "Right Brain" thinking as applied to medicine.

The Meridians and The Collaterals

To the ancient Chinese, man was considered to be an intimate part of his environment. Man recognized the connectedness of all life in the cycles of the Heavens, the Earth and the connectedness of all other life forms upon the Earth to each other. The Qi of the universe and the waterways of the Earth were likened to the flow of Qi and the flow of the Body Fluids in the HPO. Doctors of ancient China paid much more attention to the Body Fluids and energies circulating through the body than to the physical anatomical structures as they were considered to be more fundamental to medical practice. Channel or Meridian theory was largely derived from clinical practice and the subjective experiences of patients undergoing acupuncture treatment. The basis of the meridian theory is the synthesis of clinical findings with subjective sensory experience coupled with anatomical knowledge. The theory was formalized and completed by Qi Gong masters that meditated on the flow of Qi through pathways on and within the body. The meridians are a system of channels that integrates all the separate parts of the body into a unified organism. An understanding of the meridians and their energetic function and interactions allows the medical practitioner to gain an understanding of the relationships between all the aspects of physiology, pathology, diagnosis and therapy in TCM. Thus, central to the study of TCM is an understanding of the flow of Qi and Blood within the body as directed by the meridian system. In WM, much of the knowledge and physiology of the CNS and ENS accounts for the control of blood flow in the HPO. Also, the hormonal system in WM accounts for cyclic changes in response to the environment and ingested nutrient substances by the HPO. During the formation of the basic medical theories of TCM, this knowledge did not exist.

What the ancient Chinese doctors discovered was that the flow of Qi and Blood in a balanced manner accounted for health. Any disruption in this harmonious flow resulted in disease. They also discovered that Qi and Blood flow ebbed and peaked every 2 hours along specific channels that could be influenced by acupuncture in specific locations on the body surface. Eventually, the channels were classified into four main groupings: Jing, Luo, Muscle/Tendon and Cutaneous. The Jing-Luo were deep within the body and the Muscle/Tendon and Cutaneous channels were more superficial. There were 12 main meridians that correlated to specific Zang-Fu organs, eight extraordinary channels and 12 deep divergent channels that were known as the "Jing". There were also 15 major collaterals, the minute channels and the superficial channels that were known as the "Luo". The Muscle/Tendon channels are 12 in number that connect the deeper energetic regions of the body to the surface and flow through the muscles, tendons and ligaments. The Cutaneous channels are regions of skin surface area corresponding to the Muscle/Tendon channels below where Qi and Blood supply the surface tissues and the energies of the body contact the environment.

The Jing meridians are the main pathways for flow vertically through the body from deep within the interior outwards. They connect the body cavities and organs with the limbs and the head. The Luo channels are smaller interlinking channels that flow more superficially in both vertical and horizontal directions. They link the deep channels with the more superficial Muscle/Tendon and Cutaneous channels. The channels respond to any disrupting influence upon the body from without and within. Disrupting influences that alter the balanced flow of Qi and Blood by the meridians will cause disease according to the channel(s) affected. The flow of Qi and Blood moves through a known time course from channel to channel and disease may pass from one organ to another in a predictable fashion. The flow from channel to channel is as follows: Gallbladder (11 PM-1 AM) to Liver (1 AM-3 AM) to Lung (3 AM-5 AM) to Large Intestine (5 AM-7 AM) to Stomach (7 AM -9 AM) to Spleen (9 AM-11AM) to Heart (11 AM-1 PM) to Small Intestine (1 PM-3 PM) to Urinary Bladder (3 PM-5 PM) to Kidney (5 PM-7 PM) to Pericardium (7 PM-9 PM) to Three Bowels (9 PM -11 PM). The Three Bowels refers to the thoracic cavity, the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity. It is also know in the West as the Triple Burners.

There is no direct counterpart in WM to the meridian theory. As stated, the closest correspondence is the nervous system, the cardiovascular system and the hormonal system of the body. There exists no energy system counterpart in WM other than energetics as relates to metabolism and physiology.

The Patient Constitution

The constitution of any patient is a complex relationship between genetics as expressed at any point on the timeline of the patient; the socialization of the patient; the environment the patient live in, works in and traverses; the knowledge and learning of the patient; the relationships of the patient with family, friends, society and the ability of the patient to deal as an emotional and mental being in their physical body. Ultimately, a person can only be what their genetic heritage allows them to be. TCM recognizes that the diseases which a person displays is a result of circumstances common to all HPOs as well as unique to that person in the manner that their body deals with the disease. TCM tailors treatment not based upon the disease itself as in WM but upon the result of the disease in each person. The differentiation of disease in TCM is tailored for each person according to their unique signs and manifestations. TCM recognizes that the physical, emotional and mental changes require a different course of treatment for each person with what is in WM the same disease. Thus WM utilizes the same medicine for the same disease. This results in many side affects in persons for whom the medicine is not suited. Another example is the use of antibiotics in WM. This is creating a number of organisms that are now resistant to certain antibiotics. WM does not know how to deal with this phenomenon but look for a new antibiotics. In TCM, the herbs used in formulas are known to have antibiotic and antiviral effects. Microorganisms have a more difficult task of becoming resistant to whole plant preparations than specifically extracted compounds.


Western medicine has made great strides in the understanding of what goes on in the HPO. Anatomy, histology, genetics, physiology, pathology, medical technology, medical imaging and surgery excel. In dealing with the patient as a whole unique individual, it fails miserably. Western medicine is subject to the delusion that purified herbal extracts and synthetic pharmaceuticals will save mankind. But why are there so many side effects to these medicines? It is because WM looks at a patient as one of many HPOs averaged in a population of many persons rather than as a whole person with a unique constitution. WM does not have the integrated system of diagnosis and differentiation of syndromes that exists in TCM. WM does not have the treatments of acupuncture to balance the flow of energies and fluids nor the herbal formulas made from whole plant tissues to augment the bodies systems and reduce the pathological products of deranged metabolism. WM fails to understand that the cause of disease affects the whole organism and not just a localized part of the body.

So what are the real correspondences between WM and TCM? If a discussion centers upon the technology of WM, there is little to relate. If a discussion centers upon the Meridian theory of TCM, there is also little to relate. Practical considerations of both approaches to health and healing are centered upon the HPO. The means of diagnosis of disease and differentiation of syndromes based upon signs and symptoms is disparate but in many ways similar. TCM patient intake involves the whole individual in relation to physical, emotional and mental aberrations. WM patient intake involves extensive physical testing only. WM deals very well with acute and traumatic conditions. TCM deals very well with chronic and acute conditions. The nature of politics in modern day China integrates WM and TCM very well in the same hospital to the benefit of the patient. The nature of politics in the USA is such that TCM is relegated to the Acupuncture profession outside mainstream medicine with therapeutic restrictions not applied in China.


  1. Johnson, J. A., Chinese Medical Qigong Therapy: A Comprehensive Clinical Text, 2000, The International Institute of Medical Qigong, Pacific Grove, CA
  2. Machiocia, G., Diagnosis in Chinese Medicine, 2004, Elsevier Ltd, London, UK
  3. Wiseman, N. and Ellis, A., Fundamentals of Chinese Medicine, Revised Edition, 1996, Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA
  4. Xinnong, C., Editor, Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 2002, Foreign Language Press, Beijing, China

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