THE JOURNAL OF BIOELECTROMAGNETIC MEDICINE
Volume Ten
July 2004

I. Clinical Studies in Bioelctromagnetic Medicine

Biological Effects of Electric Fields on Spleen and Liver of Rat
Manisha Mukewar and V.V. Baile, Department of Zoology
Nagpur University, Nagpur-440033, India

II. The Whole Is Greater Than The Sum Of Its Parts
E. F. Block IV

Introduction

The term bionics was coined in the early 1960's to be a contraction of the words "biological electronics". Physicists and Electrical Engineers were coming to grips with the realization that Nature had already gone before them in reality. The concepts that these scientists were wrestling with is in the comparatively simplistic world of "Inorganic Matter" and were being discovered to be utilized by living organisms as everyday life processes in dazzling profusion! Also, slowly at first, Molecular Biologists were learning that tearing apart living systems to learn of its functionality had its limits. The understanding of a complex living organism is not a simple task. This task relies upon both left-brain "splitter" mentality as differential analysis as well as right-brain "lumper" mentality of wholistic synthesis. This is the crux of the argument between the "Mechanists" and the "Vitalists". The left-brain Mechanists were at odds with the right-brain Vitalists. Each has a definite contribution to gaining an understanding of what comprises "Life". The problem is that politics has gotten in the way of progress. Today there is no true difference between the Mechanists and the Vitalists because both are seeing the same phenomenon with the same view. This is because basic research has verified that both camps are talking about the same phenomena using the same vocabulary! Each camp has learned that the workings of living systems are explainable in terms of modern scientific conceptualization.

What is mysterious still to both camps is just what is it that comprises "Life". Biological electronics is a misnomer as such. This is because it is from the viewpoint of people that work with wires and circuitry that fail to realize that they are mimicing what nature has already wraught in Biological Systems in a very simplistic manner. They fail to understand that there will never be "Artificial Intelligence". This is because inorganic systems are subject to what man has called the Laws of Thermodynamics. What they fail to realize is that living systems have found a way around the Laws of Thermodynamics! This is what comprises the uniqueness of "Life". Life is a directed accumulation of stored energy for the purpose of reproduction of the living entity through the timeline of the Earth and Solar System. This concept still does not address the issue of what exactly comprises "Consciousness" in living systems. That task is currently, mainly in the realm of the cultural fantasies of psychology and religion.

This article will address the issue of the organization of the whole beingness of the body of a person. It is based upon the left-brain analysis of electronics, physics and biochemistry and the right-brain synthesis of cell biology and organismal biology. It is based upon the understanding of many people as synthesized by the author. As such, it is not definitive. Our understanding evolves continuously in concert with the evolution of our World.

Contents

  1. Crystalline Water Dynamics in Biological Systems
  2. Superconduction of Biological Polymers
  3. The Body Extracellular-Intracellular Matrix
  4. Biological Morphogenic Fields
  5. Biological Input/Output Systems
  6. Biological Integration Systems
  7. The Biological Whole
  8. Bibliography

Crystalline Water Dynamics in Biological Systems

Water is a polar molecule, it has positive and negative charges separated by a dipole length and thus exists as an electric dipole. This is due to the 104.5o angle of the hydrogen bonds to the oxygen atom. The electronegativity of the oxygen atom attracts the electron of the hydrogen atom. Thus the region about the oxygen is negative compared to the region around the hydrogen atoms, which are comparatively positve. Because of this molecular configuration, water molecules mutually attract one another due to the (-) and (+) regions. Individual water molecules are linked by these hydrogen bonds and form what are called clusters (structural water). In addition, water at an interface, as with the atmosphere, has a surface tension due to the polar interactions of water with other water molecules at the interface surface. Water has the capacity to align into 400-500 hydration layers (Gerald H. Pollack, 2001). At body temperature, there are about 300-400 water molecules cross-linked into a cluster. This clustering imparts a crystalline like property to the water. Water is known to crosslink in arrays from linear to helical. In the bodies of living organisms, the clusters form hydration layers around biological molecules. The entropy of "structural" water is not as great as that of solid water as ice, due to the greater content of thermal energy at body temperature. The water molecules of ice are aligned in a linear array, with some branching, yielding a more rigid structure of expanded intermolecular domains than that of liquid water. For this reason, ice is less dense than water and as such floats.

It is known from electronics that different patterns which contain information result within a cluster depending upon its structure. An example of this is gamma-iron that is used for the recording of information in digital form as discrete, local magnetic domains. Thus, depending on its structure, each molecule has an oscillatory pattern (resonance frequency) that can be determined by spectroscopy. It is known, through spectrographic analysis, that water and other dipole molecules are able to be entrained to exogenous oscillatory patterns by rearranging their cluster patterns. The cluster rearrangements then resonate with the entraining frequency. Quantum electrodynamics calls for the existence of long range electromagnetic fields that can be transmitted by large, hundreds of angstroms, coherent domains present in water (E. Del Giudice & E. Preparata, 1994). Electromagnetic field (EMF) interactions afforded by the capacity of water to support long range EMF fields yield the specific and rapid long distance attraction of coresonating mates. Coherent domains with laser-like properties have been described in water (E. del Giudice, G. Preparata, G. Vitiello, 1988) . More recently, a unique type of stable (non-melting) ice crystal that maintains an electrical field has been identified and characterized in water. In the example of living organisms, it is the biological molecules of cellular architecture, membrane systems, cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic components and cellular organelles that entrain the water of hydration surrounding them. All biological interactions occur in water, since, on the average, there are ten thousand molecules of water per molecule of protein. These patterns persist through time, although not indefinitely without continued entrainment. This entrainment is able to be determined by various types of spectroscopy. These include quanta of electromagnetic waves (photons), quanta of the weak interactions (bosons) and of sound (phonons).

Water molecules must line up in an electric field because of their bipolar nature. If the field direction is reversed, the molecules will about-face. As long as the frequency of the imposed field is not too high, water molecules will continue to flip with the imposed frequency. When the frequency is raised beyond a critical value, the water molecules will no longer be able to respond in timely fashion. For ordinary water, the critical frequency for this weakening is 20 GHz. In structural water, the critical frequency drops to 10 KHz. Frequencies below these limits allow the structural water to move in resonance with the entraining frequency. Alternating current frequencies (50 Hz, 60 Hz) are well within this range and are known to deleteriously affect many biological processes (E. F. Block, 1994).

The principle of Magnetic Resonance Imaging takes advantage of the orientation of the hydrogen nuclei of water (by absorbing exogenously applied electromagnetic energy) to orient in an exogenously applied stable magnetic field. Upon release from magnetic orientation, the hydrogen nuclei emit relaxation quanta as photons that are recorded and yield a picture of the "structural" water in the body. Water is thus known to orient to the presence of magnetic fields as well as electric fields. This is particularly important when you understand that those persons with "healing" abilities are able to charge water by the application of emitted electromagnetic fields from their body, most usually the hands. Perhaps the earliest, most famous and controversial proponent of this phenomenon is Dr. Franz Anton Mesmer. Dr. Mesmer was able to charge the baquet with his "magnetic fluid" to the benefit of his patients. Modern researchers have studied many healers and the effects of their energy projections in water. Spectrographic analysis of the water before and after charging show shifts in resonant spectra and a decrease in surface tension (R. Gerber, 2001).

Superconduction of Biological Polymers

An excellent theoretical discussion may be found here for "Exotic Atoms and a Mechanism for Superconductivity in Biosystems" and here for "Resonator Quality and Superconduction in Cells".

The Body Extracellular-Intracellular Matrix

The whole of the body is made up of 2 sets. One set is living and the other set is non-living. The living set, comprised of the variously differentiated cells of the body, secretes, molds and rearranges the non-living set. The non-living set, the extracellular matrix is an extension of the components of the living set or cells of the body. We first need to gain an understanding of basic cell biology in order to appreciate the intricacies of cell-to-cell communication, cell-to-body communication & collective (whole body) communication and the roll of the extracellular matrix and intracellular matrix in the communicative processes.

The human body is composed of cells organized together with extracellular matrix into tissues having specific characteristics relating to specific functions. Each tissue is composed of several cell types and supporting extracellular matrix. About 200 differentiated cell types are found within the human body. Cells within a tissue must communicate with one another. This may be done via a receptor mediated signalling mechanism or by direct cellular contact (Gap Junctions). In some tissues, cells are held tightly together by a series of cell junctions to form compartmentalized domains.

Adhesion and Integration fundamentals may be found and here.

Cell Junctions

Cells are held together by the adhesive forces of cellular membrane molecules acting as (+) and
(-) overlapping regions and the associated water of hydration. Several specialized cell junctions provide for tight cellular adhesion and inter-cellular communication. These junctions also serve as seals to prevent substances from flowing through the intracellular space between tissue domains.

Tight Junctions

These junctions, also called zona occludens, are seen as a band that encircles the cell and seals adjacent cell membranes. This closes off the intracellular space. The principle function of the tight junction is to form a more or less tight seal that prevents the flow of materials between cells. The membranes may have many fusion sites within the junction and therefore be more impermeable or have only a few and be relatively "leaky". The zona occludens are the first line of defense against unwanted substances and microorganisms from entering the internal body milieu.

Zona Adherens

This type of junction encircles the cell and provides for the adhesion of one cell to another. These junctions are rich in actin, myosin, tropomyosin and vinculin microfilaments. We shall understand the importance of these proteins in later discussion.

Gap Junction

Gap junctions are communicating junctions found in almost all mammalian tissues. These structures are characterized by very close apposition of adjacent membranes (2 nanometer electron dense space between membranes) and circular protein aggregates that form pores between adjacent cells. The aggregates, called connexons, are made of protein hexamers with a hydrophillic central pore. Connexons of adjacent cells are aligned to form a hydrophilic channel between the cells. Gap junctions permit the exchange between cells of molecules with molecular mass less than 1500 Da, which would include ions, some hormones, cAMP, cGMP. These substances cause cells in tissues to act in a coordinated manner. Heart muscle and synctial smooth muscle are readily understood examples of this type of coordinated commuication between cells.

Macula Adherens

These junctions, also known as desmosomes, are complex disc shaped structures at the surface on one cell that is matched with an identical structure on the surface of the adjacent cell. Within each cell, in close approximation to the junction is a circular plaque made of some 12 proteins called the attachment plaque. The plaques have numerous intermediate filaments (keratin) entering and leaving them. These junctions seem to function as points of especially firm adhesion between adjacent cells. This is the only type of junction seen in the stratified squamous epithelium of the skin. Hemidesmosomes, or half desmosomes, can be found in the interaction of a cell membrane with the basement membrane where they serve to bind the cell to the membrane. Cells of the epithelium that loose their connection with the basement membrane go into programmed cell death (apoptosis).

Extracellular Matrix (ECM)

A major portion of tissues is extracellular space that is filled by a network of macromolecules secreted by the cellular components within the tissue. The matrix is composed of a variety of polysaccharides and proteins but mostly collagen. ECM is present to some degree in all tissues, even blood where the plasma might be considered the matrix, but is a functional determinant in connective tissues. In addition to serving as a scaffold or support for cells, cellular functions are regulated to some degree by the ECM. The matrix is made of polysaccharides bound to proteins (proteoglycans) and fibrous structural and adhesive proteins. The proteoglycans retain water and form a sort of gel substance through which ions, hormones and nutrients can move. Indeed the ground substance can act as a molecular sieve to regulate the traffic of molecules and cells according to charge or size. The fibrous structural proteins give the ECM strength, the elastic proteins give it resilience and the adhesive proteins help cells attach to the ECM. A chief component of ground substance is hyaluronic acid which is a large polysaccharide made of glucuronic acid and glucosamine that attracts a large amount of water of hydration. Cells can easily migrate through swelled hyaluronic acid ground substance. It also serves as a lubricant in synovial joint fluid.

Connective tissue is any type of biological tissue with an extensive extracellular matrix that is secreted and regulated by the cells of that tissue. There are several basic types of connective tissue:

  1. Bone contains specialized cells called osteocytes embedded in a mineralized extracellular matrix called hydroxy-apatite, and functions for general rigid support for the body shape and a means for the lever action of muscular contraction. Osteocytes constantly mold the shape of bone according to the mechanical forces applied to the structural matrix.
  2. Loose connective tissue holds organs and epithelia in place, and has a variety of proteinaceous fibers, including collagen and elastin. Fibroblasts are responsible for the production of most of the extracellular matrix components.
  3. Fibrous connective tissue has great tensile strength, due to a high concentration of collagenous fibers, also produced by fibroblasts. It is found primarily in ligaments and tendons.
  4. Cartilage in most vertebrates is found mostly in joints, where it provides cushioning. The extracellular matrix of cartilage is composed primarily of chondroitin sulfate that is produce by Chondrocytes.
  5. The extracellular matrix of blood is the blood plasma, which transports dissolved nutrients, hormones, and carbon dioxide in the form of bicarbonate. It is composed mainly of water, proteins and lipo-proteins. The main cellular component is red blood cells (RBCs). RBCs do not secrete the components of the plasma. Many different types of cells of the body contribute substances to the plasma.
  6. Adipose tissue has an extracellular matrix that is rather loose and sparse. Its cells, adipocytes, contain large droplets of fat in an extensive intracellular matrix. Adipose tissue provides cushioning and long-term energy storage

Intracellular Matrix (ICM)

The ICM is also called the cellular architecture since it determines the shape of the cell and partitions the cell into compartmentalized domains. The ICM is responsible for "all" movements of the cell. Movements are of 3 types: intracellular, intercellular and migratory. For this discussion, cellular movement is not relevant. This discussion will focus upon the internal architecture of the cell as a means of energy/field transfer and information communication between cells and the body collective. The energy of cellular housekeeping aside. The cytoskeleton of the cell organizes the intra- and intercellular architecture. This cytoskeleton is composed of non-soluble proteins (A. Spivey, 2002) the nature which is currently being worked out. Information concerning the soluble molecules of the intracellular architecture (actin filaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules) may be found here and there. The WWW Virtual Library of Cell Biology, found here, has an excellent listing of information links.

ICM-ECM Interactions

The ECM is known to interact with intracellular matrix: an increase in the mechanical tension in the ECM can be perceived by the intracellular matrix which in turn can activate a cascade leading to hypertrophy of muscle tissue. An increase in Transforming Growth Factor is also seen, as this cytokine is associated with activation of tissue fibroblasts, one can speculate its role in ECM rearrangement. However, for our purposes, we concern ourselves with the intimate connection between the ICM of the cell and the ECM of the body background substance. The link between the ground substance of the ECM and the cellular architecture are a group of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). CAMs fall into 4 main types called: cadherins, immunoglobulins, integrins and selectins. There are many members of these 4 types and they have diverse properties. CAMs have multiple domains for molecular interactions that are both homophilic and heterophilic. This diversity is what allows cells to form into the many tissue types and also to show the various reactions to the ECM. The reactions to the ECM directly involve the ICM. As an example, the integrins are transmembrane proteins. The extracellular part binds to the ECM. The intracellular part interacts with actin or signaling molecules. The molecules the integrins bind with in the ECM alter the pattern of association with the actins and signaling molecules. Thus the different components of the ECM directly affect the signaling of the integrins. In response to intercellular signals, integrins will alter their affinity for extracellular ligands and lets us know that signaling is bi-directional.

The cell has 2 distinct domains. The nuclear domain is where the chromatin resides. The cytoplasmic domain is where protein is assembled and ATP is generated. The cytoskeleton of the cytoplasm is not the same as that of the nucleoplasm. There is an interface at the nuclear membrane similar to that at the cellular membrane. This is due to the different types of activities. The cytoplasm needs edoplasmic reticulum geared to linear sequential biochemical processes. The nucleoplasm needs architecture geared to DNA synthesis, transcription and ribosomal component production. The point being that the chromosomal DNA of one cell has a superconducting link through many types of biological molecules to every other living cell of the body, and their DNA, and the ECM body collective. Each part of the Whole is directly connected to every other part of the Whole! When you touch one part of your body, there are local effects but there are also collective effects. It is this collective effect that is being elucidated.

Biological Morphogenic Fields

Each organism has what is hypothesized as a Morphogenic Field that interpenetrates and surrounds the body structure. This Field is the sum of all the fields generated by the individual cells of the body and the supramolecular web of the collective ECM. There are localized domains of influence within the Whole. This is due to the differentiation of cell types into tissues. The Morphogenic Field is the organizing background influence for the ultimate structure of the body as a Whole. This organizing field is generated within the original ovum and persists through embryogenesis, fetal development, birth, growth and senescence. It is thought to be a direct holographic representation of the Whole as generated by the chromosomal genomic complement. Thus the development of differentiating cells into tissues, tissues into organs, organs into organ systems and the organism as a Whole is represented in the genome of every individual body and integrated by the generated Morphogenic Field. Read "A Modern Schema for Bioelectromagnetic Medicine" for developmental details. The Morphogeneic Field, as such, is the result of the collective living processes by cells. It is therefore a reflection of the integration of cellular events through time. The Morphogeneic Field is what may be described in cultural vernacular as the "Aura". This description is not the same as that put forth by Rupert Sheldrake. It is the scheme of the author.

Biological Input/Output Systems (I/O Sys)

No-one really knows how life began upon this Earth. Much theorization concerning the possibilities has been proposed. It is a fact that the properties of water at an interface have been crucial for the chain of events to occur. This all took place in the fluctuations of the environment. By environment, what do we mean and what do we find there? The obvious climatological and meteorological rhythms are not really to the point of this discussion. Pertinent for this discussion, are the Solar insolation rhythm, the Lunar tidal rhythm, the Schumann Wave, the Hartman & Curry grid pulsations and the "Solar System Interplanetary Electromagnetic Field Matrix" (E. F. Block, 2001).

The concept of domains and localized events taking place within these domains has been discussed in relation to tissue compartments. There is a very long way and untold millions of years between the domains of tissue compartments and the separation of domains at an aqueous interface. However, there is no dispute that the events leading up to what we call "life" took place in an aqueous environment. The property of water to "structure" itself and be entrained has also been discussed.

The original "cell" was more like bacteria that we find today, no separation of nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The cell membrane with all its lipids and protein inclusions developed within the rhythmic fluctuations of the electromagnetic environment. More importantly, nucleic acids that were able to self-replicate and pass on the ability to code for protein enzyme systems evolved. Self-replication, division and the ability to respond to the rhythms of the environment evolved together. As the cellular architecture is protein, it has to be coded by nucleic acid groupings. The dynamics of DNA/RNA replication, division, transcription and translation must have been worked out very early. The DNA groupings are what we call chromosomes. When does the Morphogenic Field arise? Does it arise when distinct chromosomes are evident? Since the concept of the Morphogenic Field is still to be worked out, all is speculation at this point.

It is obvious that the means of a cell to respond to the input from the environment would have to be to energy/field fluctuations, thermal fluctuations and dissolved chemical substance fluctuations.

Thermal gradients in the aqueous environment are mediated by the high heat capacity of water to absorb/release heat from/to the environment. The oceans are thought to be the original "soup" in which life evolved. Apart from hydrothermal vents, the temperatures existing in the oceans surface waters and shore interfaces were conducive for the evolution of life processes. Proteins are known to be functional at a temperature "normal" for the environment in which they are found. Thus temperature is not really relevant to our discussion.

This leaves energy/field and chemical interactions. It must be pointed out that there are always energy/field interactions due to the basic parameters of matter as such. These interactions are very important for all chemical interactions. So what we mean by energy/field interactions are not local interactions but interactions at a distance, energy/field interactions that entrain resonance in a local environmental milieu for local chemical interactions to take place. Chemical reactions in biological systems take place in an aqueous medium that is highly organized. This organization is due to the nature of water to form clusters, to membrane compartmentalization of enzyme systems, to membrane arrays of sequential proteins in an enzyme system and to the spatial configuration of molecules in biological polymers. All chemical interaction involves the transfer of electrons and the rearrangement of existing compounds or creation of new compounds in a very small local enviroment. Individual cells have to deal with their local chemical environment. This is just as true for an amoeba living in a pond as well as a cell living in your pancreas! Thus we need to discuss a little about the manner in which individual cells respond to and interact with their local environment.

The lipid bi-layer membrane serves to compartmentalize the cytoplasm of the cell from the exterior of the cell. The means that cells have evolved to interact with their environment is via cell surface membrane inclusions of protein and protein-carbohydrate molecules into the lipid bi-layer as "receptors". These inclusion molecules have specific structures that interact with specific molecules in the environment in such a manner as to cause a signaling cascade of internal events. This cascade results in a response specific to the type of signaling cascade. The response may be to utilize stored products in a particular manner, to initiate movement of the cell or to initiate DNA transcription and translation. Various cations of potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, phosphate and bicarbonate may be involved as well as existing enzyme systems and components of the cytoskeleton. The cell is capable of altering the cell surface "receptors" in response as well as secreting various products such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, transmitters and wastes.

Recently, there have been a series of articles concerning the energetic model of biological reactions and regulations of the interactions between a signal and receptor molecule (Smith, 1987, Szent-Gyorgyi,1988 and Benveniste, 1998). Molecules are usually described as encountering each other by chance and fitting into a "Lock and Key" model interaction. Even with biological arrays, this model provides a very low probability of meeting and requires a very long time to happen. In the newer model, molecules interact by coresonance and need not actually touch as long as they are within an energetic field radius. In living systems, relatively long range electromagnetic fields engage in resonance matching and coherent amplification between distant molecules. This occurs as long as emission and absorption spectra match. Thus, non-resonating, unwanted signals are excluded. As with all electromagnetic phenomena, the upper limit of such communication is the speed of light. J. Benveniste has shown dramatically the proof of this model. In thousands of experiment over many years, he has recorded the resonance frequencies of signaling molecules, matched them to the harmonics in the audible range, digitized them and then using a computer sound card, played the recording of the signaling molecules. Accordingly, the recording of a specific signaling molecule will evoke an appropriate response in the specific receptor molecule just as if the molecules were in local contact! Benveniste has suggested that the effects of specific biological molecules (histamine, caffeine, adrenalin, insulin), as well as viruses and bacteria, are due more to electromagnetic interaction than direct contact.

A very interesting comment concerning the biological effects of EMF follows.


"We have also seen in research done in the late 1980s that proteins, DNA, and transforming DNA function as piezoelectric crystal lattice structures in nature. The piezoelectric effect refers to that property of matter which may convert electromagnetic oscillations to mechanical vibrations and vice versa. Studies with exogenously administered electromagnetic fields have shown that both transcription (RNA synthesis) and translation (protein synthesis) can be induced by electromagnetic fields and furthermore that direct current in bone will produce osteochondrogenesis (bone formation) and bacteriostasis, as well as affect adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, protein synthesis and membrane transport" (H. Coetzee, 2003)
As you might guess, the basic research concerning EMFs is going mainstream.

In a complex organism, such as man, the 5 senses are the means that external stimuli are received. The stimulation may be mechanical (epithelial touch receptors and the internal ear receptors for sound), electromagnetic (eyes for visible light) and chemical (taste receptors in the tongue epithelia and odor receptors in the nasal epithelia). Since the receptors are on/in the surface of the body, how are they perceived? The received information is transmitted via a cable network called a nervous system to the brain (Central Nervous System [CNS]). In fact, the receptors are elements of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). The CNS receives the information, processes the information and then initiates a response via a cable network (CNS outflow) to muscle motor endplates that stimulate muscular contractions. This is the classical view of biological I/O systems. Even though there is a cable network, the communication between elements of that network is of a biochemical nature. Neurons release classes of molecules termed neurotransmitters in the space between the signaling and receiving neuron. The neurotransmitter interacts with specific membrane receptor molecules and triggers a membrane depolarization, message received.

Ultimately then, all communication in the body is of a biochemical/electromagnetic nature. This is especially true for the Neuro-Endocrine System. The products released by the endocrine system elements are extremely minute, in the range of 10-12 Molar on the average. Hormones coordinate the rhythms of the body through time in response to changes in the electromagnetic fluctuations in the environment. Hormones are intimately involved in maintaining the homeostasis of the body and in the response of the CNS to the demands put upon the body by life circumstances. Please read previous Journal articles for particulars. Here is also an excellent link.

Biological Integration Systems

Biological integration systems have co-evolved with the evolution of species on the Earth. The more complex the organisms, the more complex are the integration systems. It is beyond the scope of this work to trace the development of the CNS through the many genera of animate species. The Human CNS is perhaps (Cetaceans?) the most complex biological integrative system. In any case, all I/O systems require an integrative command and control center that is called the brain. The PNS is the input system. The brain interprets the received information, determines an appropriate response and activates body effectors by the output system. The output system is CNS nervous outflow and hormones. The nervous outflow directly and rapidly causes the body to move and tissues to secrete. Hormones set the body tone as a biochemical backdrop for a genealized, slower response to heightened awareness and preparation for action as well as an integration of behaviors through time. As such, the Nervous System is a latecomer onto the scene of biological integration. First was electromagnetic energy/field integration, followed by biochemical integration and lastly, nervous integration. All systems are tiered with the most ancient built upon by the more recent.

First, electromagnetic energy/field (EMF) integration will be discussed. As stated above, the DNA-chromosomal complex responds to the EMF flux of the environment. Superconduction of electron pairs (Cooper pairs) via biological molecules and the water of hydration allows for instantaneous transmission of information to any part of a cell. Cells may then transmit information via gap junctions to the cell(s) next to it by the same process. Cells of a tissue will then affect the organ it is a part and so forth until the entire organism is involved. It is also true then that by the same process the EMF environment within which the body resides of will determine the response of the DNA-chromosomal complex in each individual cell. Just as there is no separation of the movement of electrons and the field this movement produces, there is no separation of the response of the DNA-chromosomal complex to the EMF fluctuations in the environment. The larger entrains the smaller!

Biochemical integration involves the Neuro-endocrine System as the effectors and the Hormonal System as the affecters with all the cells of the body as the responder. The responding cells then produce a specific output that dampens the output of the effectors/affecters in a negative feedback manner. This produces an oscillatory I/O response keyed to the oscillatory nature of the EMF flux for purposes of homeostasis and as behaviors tuned to the environment.

Nervous integration is a subject rife with conjecture and opinion. Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology are quite advanced in terms of scientific knowledge. As stated before, none really knows what "consciousness" is as yet. Humans have much more plasticity in their integration of input than any other animal. The neuro-endocrine system modulates the consciousness inherent in the collective mass of neurons that comprises the brain in response to the fluctuations in the EMF. The un-conscious modulation of the homeostatic systems of the body runs concurrently. Thus, the urge to eat, to drink, to mate and to seek shelter is running beneath the consciousness. The thalamus filters the informational input and makes the consciousness aware of selected items. Since you are what you think, you may change the filtering and the content that you receive consciously. This is the only real control the consciousness has as you run mostly in the un-conscious/instinctual mode.

The Biological Whole

From the above discussions, it is easy to understand that the Whole is really not just the sum of its parts. Awareness of the environment and the elements of the environment that change in time are crucial for any species of animal. What sets man apart from other animals is the conscious manipulation of the various elements in the environment with a directed purpose. Humans are able to learn awareness of the environment in terms of fluctuations in the EMF as those practiced in the various forms of the Art of Meditation. Those skilled at healing are able to consciously manipulate the EMF of their own body and the body of others for the purpose of bringing the smaller morphogenic field of the body in tune with the greater EMF of their environment. Man is learning to do this EMF entrainment with machines and this is currently an intense area of investigation.

Bibliography

  1. Gerald H. Pollack, 2001, "Cells, Gels and the Engines of Life", Ebner and Sons, Seattle
  2. E. Del Giudice & E. Preparata, 1994, Journal of Biological Physics, vol. 20, p. 105
  3. E. del Giudice, G. Preparata, G. Vitiello, 1988, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61:1085-1088
  4. R. Gerber, 2001, "Vibrational Medicine", Bear and Company, Rochester, VT
  5. E. F. Block, 1994, "The Macrocosm Within", Chapter 8, http://www.diamondhead.net/tmw.htm
  6. A. Spivey, 2002, "Return of the Matrix", Endeavors, http://research.unc.edu/endeavors/fall2002/matrix.html
  7. E. F. Block, 2001, "The Solar System Interplanetary Electromagnetic Field Matrix and the Biological Clock", http://www.diamondhead.net/p3.htm
  8. J. Benveniste, 1998, "From Water Memory Effects to Digital Biology", http://www.digibio.com
  9. C. W. Smith, 1987, "Electromagnetic Effects in Humans", in "Biological Coherance and Response to External Stimuli", Springer-Verlag, Berlin
  10. A. Szent-Gyorgyi, 1988, "To See What No One Has Thought", Biological Bulletin 175: 191-241
  11. H. Coetzee, 2003, "Biomagnetism and Bio-Electromagnetism: The Foundation of Life", http://www.affs.org/html/biomagnetism.html

Clinical Research Studies:

"Biological Effects of Electric Fields on Spleen and Liver of Rat", Manisha Mukewar and V.V. Baile, Department of Zoology, Nagpur University, Nagpur-440033, India

ABSTRACT:

Females and males of rat Sprague dawley were subjected to electric fields of 1.5 kv/m and 10 kv/m strengths. Effects on spleen and liver were studied and reported at the end of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. In 10 kv electric field exposure, spleenomegaly was observed indicating general leukemia.

In liver, up to 30 days there was initial stress. From 60 to 90 days division of hepatocytes showing repair of damaged cells was observed but chronic exposure up to 120 days again resulted in clumping of RBCs, vacuolation in cytoplasm and disruption of cell boundaries.

INTRODUCTION:

Electric power is used throughout our homes and work places, as a result of which we are subjected to the effects of electric and magnetic fields (EMF). These fields are created by voltages and currents present in electrical conductors and electric equipments. Due to ubiquitous presence of electric power, its effects on public health implications are potentially very significant.

Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields can produce biological effects have been known for hundreds of years, but only within last four decades however, some serious consideration is given to the question of possible biological effects of EMF's . Barnothy (1964, 69) ; Marino and Becker (1977); Carpenter and Ayrpetyen (1994a, b) and Uena (1996) have presented exhaustive work on biological effects of electric and magnetic fields discussing all types of physiological and biochemical effects, both beneficial and harmful.

In many living animals, a variety of natural endogenous electric fields also exist internally, which arise from normal physiological activity and extend into adjacent tissues throughout body. These endogenous fields are detectable at the surface of the body via skin electrodes and yield signals that are useful in medical diagnosis. Immediate or direct effects of electric fields are exerted at or near the cell surface (Walleezek, 1992; Mc. Coy et.al.,1995) where they may affect cell surface receptors (Phillips et. al, 1986) or ion channel permeability (Liburdi, 1992 ; Nuccitelli et al., 1993) or cause electrophoretic displacement of charged membrane proteins (Jaffe 1977; Nuccitell et al ; 1993).

Man made 60 Hz electric fields are most often highest directly under high tension transmission lines. Some individuals can perceive an external 60 Hz fields of 2.5 kv/m (Sheppard and Eisenbud, 1977) . Some epidemiological studies have revealed that there are increased cancer incidences associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields (Sheik, 1986; Coleman and Beral 1988. Savitz et al; 1988).

Extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields less than 100 Hz are reported to produce biological effects from amoeba to man (Sandyk, 1995) and small cells undergo larger deformation in an electric field (Gorczynska and Coster 1992). In our earlier work (Mukewar and Baile 2003), various parameters of blood of Sprague dawley were reported to undergo significant changes ; where the resultant anaemia upon exposure to electric fields was found to be normocystic ; but almost no studies are available on the effects of these fields on various organs of the body, thus, in continuation to our previous work on blood effects of electric fields of 1.4 kv and 10 kv strengths on spleen and liver are studied and reported at the end of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days because the result of researchers who exposed experimental animals to electric fields are ambiguous (De Bruyn and De Jager, 1994).

METHODS AND MATERIALS:

The Laboratory

The experiment was conducted in the experimental animal unit of department of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Nagpur University, Nagpur. Control and experimental rats were housed in one room and thus exposed to the same environment, barring the exposure fields. The temperature of the room was maintained at 21-230C, relative humidity 40% to 50% and light / dark schedule of 12/12 hours. In summers coolers were installed in order to maintain the temperature. Laboratory facilities were set as prescribed by Farris and Griffith (1962).

The Exposure Facility and Mouse Cages

In the present experiement, the case was made of transparent PVC container with holes in all the directions for air circulation which was fixed in wooden frame. Two parallel metal plates were fixed at the bottom and top of the cage, having their back sides covered with fine plywood.This cage is called as Faradays cage.

For generating electric field, the voltage was supplied at two fixed terminals of parallel plates, placed at distance of 18 cms. The power supply used for generating 10 kv/DC electric field was specially designed by M/s Indian Electronics Devices Ltd. Nagpur, with specifications of 10 kv/AC and DC current rating 0.1 Ampere (Model 431. Sr. No 08321). In fact, although this method is normally used for exposure of laboratory animals, it is used infrequently for in vitro studies. This is because very high electric field in air is required to achieve the electric field within the medium which are relevant to environmental exposure of humans, such as exposure to power transmission line fields.

For generating 1.5 kv/DC electric field, the power supply was obtained from Giger Counting System (Electronic Corporation of India Ltd. Model GCS II, 5, No. 15883). Maximum voltage used was 1.5 kv(1500 volts).

The rats were housed in standard polypropylene rate breeding cages with a stainless steel grill (De Bruyn and De Jager, 1994; Oroza et al., 1987). These cages with animals were then kept in Faraday's cages for experimentation. The experimental and control groups of animals were kept apart. The control cages were kept at sufficient distance from experimental cages, so that there should not be any interference of exposure field. All other conditions of control group were the same as that of the experimental cages except the exposure fields.

The husk was scattered in the plastic cages to form a bedding for rats. This material is very good absorbent. The food pellets made by Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL) were given to the animals. It consists of all nutrient values necessary for the healthy growth of the rat. The rats had free access to water from water bottles.

The husk bedding was changed three times a week when the cages were also washed with ordinary commercial dish washing powder. The cages were rinsed several times with running tap water in order to clean the residue of washing powder. Then the cages water kept for complete drying.

The Experimental Animal

Healthy rats of species Sprague dawley were collected from the animal house of the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagpur University, Nagpur.

The rats of approximately 60-90 days age and weight of 125-150 gms. approximately were taken for experiments. Males and females were kept in separate cages (Farris and Griffith. 1962). Daily diary was maintained to record the general health and mortality of the animals.

The Experimental Design

A number of animals were kept for acclimatization for one week in the experimental room. After one week, the animals were used for experimentation.

The animals in the group of five males and five females were put in separate plastic cages which in turn were kept in Faraday's cage. The cages for electric field of 1.5 kv / DC, 10 kv/DC and control cages were kept separately. The rats were exposed for different times such as 30 days, 60 days, 90 days and 120 days. At the end of each exposure time, the required organs were dissected and fixed in alcoholic Bouin's fluid. The sections of liver and spleen were then passed through ascending grades of alcohol in order to dehydrate the tissue, then washed in xylene and the blocks were prepared in paraffin wax. Fine sections of 6 m to 7 m were cut on microtome and fixed on glass slide with albumin.

The sections were then deparaffinized and stained with haematoxyline eosin for histological observations . To ascertain the exact changes taking place in different tissues of the rats exposed to electric fields, following calculations were made.

For liver - cell diameter and nuclear diameter.

For spleen-diameter of white pulp, and number of lymphocytes per square unit area were calculated . These findings are reported for both the males and females at the end of 30th, 60th , 90th and 120 days. The cell and nuclear diameters were measured using an occulometer and the actual diameters in micra were calculated after calibrating with a stage micrometer, Photo micrographs were made using a microscope.

All statistics presented in this study are mean + standard error. Student's 't' test was made use of for testing the significance of differences between the means of readings of, experimental and control groups in this study, using 5% level of significance.

Observations and Discussion

Living organisms contain many charged ions, proteins and membranes. All interactions of biological molecules are electrical at a fundamental level. Since electromagnetic field exerts force on electric charges and currents, it might modify biological functions (Valberg, 1996) ). In view of this, it was expected that exposure to electric fields might show some alterations in spleen and liver. It was further substantiated as number of haematological parameters were altered due to the exposure of electric fields in Sprague dawley reported in our earlier studies (Mukewar and Baile, 2003).

The results of present work are summarized in various tables and illustrated in photomicrographs.

Spleen is the largest haemolymph organ. Being the only organ specialized for filtering blood (Leeson and Leeson 1976), it alters the blood passing through it. It also manufactures lymphocytes (Foster, 1981). When Sprague dawley was exposed to electric fields, it underwent enlargement (spleenomegaly) and the pulp was packed with leukocytes on 120 day in 10 kv electric field exposure. Enlargement of spleen in the mice exposed to radiofrequency field was also reported by Repachole et al., (1997). A general leukemia is frequently associated with an enlarged spleen, the pulp getting packed with leukocytes chiefly myeloblasts and granular leukocytes. In Sprague dawley, lymphatic infiltrations were more prominent in the red pulp area on 90 days in 1.5 kv electric field exposure. In 120 days exposure there was significant reduction (P less than[lt] 0.05) in the diameter of white pulp nodules in male rats. White pulp provides lymphocytes throughout the life. Phagocytic cells of the spleen remove leukocytes, foreign bodies and R.B.C. In later case spleen also functions as an organ of blood destruction. It also acts as a store house of R.B.Cs. If there is any variation in the size of the spleen, it is associated with its functioning of acting as a store house for erythrocytes (Foster, 1981). In our studies spleenomegaly observed could be associated with general leukemia. This fact was further substantiated by an increase in leukocytes.

Tables Legend:
P is less than value in ( )
ns = not significant

Spleen
30 days exposure
Diameter of white pulp nodule

MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv10 kvControl1.5 kv10 kv
1.461.31.1251.521.341.25
1.381.261.221.381.141.32
1.421.11.41.461.41.25
1.281.361.081.261.31.35
1.41.281.11.421.361.2
Mean1.3881.2601.1851.4081.3081.274
(P0.05)(P0.05)ns(P0.05)

No. of Lymphocytes/Sq. Unit area
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv10 kvControl1.5 kv10 kv
25.424.426.224.221.825.4
24.026.226.821.631.223.2
25.226.022.823.622.422.8
26.228.227.625.426.223.4
25.625.824.424.025.426.0
Mean25.2826.0825.5623.7625.4024.16
nsnsnsns

Spleen
60 days exposure
Diameter of white pulp nodule
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv10 kvControl1.5 kv10 kv
1.421.461.441.441.321.54
1.301.441.201.281.121.30
1.441.021.381.481.381.44
1.401.521.201.401.281.58
1.481.041.441.541.341.50
Mean1.411.301.331.431.291.47
nsnsnsns

No. of Lymphocytes/Sq. Unit area
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv10 kvControl1.5 kv10 kv
25.826.624.424.225.222.2
26.428.627.425.625.831.4
25.426.023.223.824.225.5
24.226.421.828.031.225.6
25.624.020.224.422.024.5
Mean25.4826.3223.4025.2025.6825.84
nsnsnsns

Spleen
90 days exposure
Diameter of white pulp nodule
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv10 kvControl1.5 kv10 kv
1.501.301.461.561.361.52
1.421.281.401.421.301.60
1.461.361.401.501.401.46
1.321.101.221.301.141.32
1.441.261.461.461.341.56
Mean1.431.261.461.451.311.49
(P0.05)nsnsns

No. of Lymphocytes/Sq. Unit area
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv10 kvControl1.5 kv10 kv
25.824.225.824.622.226.4
24.426.524.622.031.425.0
25.526.226.224.024.423.4
26.628.827.625.826.024.4
26.026.825.524.425.426.0
Mean25.6626.5025.9424.1625.8825.04
nsnsnsns

Spleen
120 days exposure
Diameter of white pulp nodule
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv --10 kv --Control1.5 kv --10 kv
1.451.281.471.481.361.25
1.341.121.231.301.161.34
1.481.381.421.521.421.48
1.431.291.601.501.321.42
1.521.321.481.581.381.54
Mean1.441.281.441.481.331.41
(P0.05)nsnsns

No. of Lymphocytes/Sq. Unit area
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv --10 kv --Control1.5 kv --10 kv
26.226.224.824.625.626.0
26.828.627.826.026.030.2
25.726.423.224.224.628.6
24.628.028.222.231.825.8
26.128.226.624.822.026.5
Mean25.8827.4826.1224.3626.0027.42
(P0.05)nsns(P0.05)

Liver
30 days exposure
Cell Diameter
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv --10 kv --Control1.5 kv --10 kv
0.520.5280.5260.520.480.52
0.5120.5180.5250.410.4860.484
0.20.540.5240.40.4780.446
0.20.5040.5060.450.4850.419
0.5120.5140.490.440.4680.404
Mean0.3890.5140.5140.4440.4790.445
nsnsnsns

Nuclear diameter
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv --10 kv --Control1.5 kv --10 kv
0.180.2710.2340.260.260.204
0.20.2640.280.180.280.216
0.260.2180.2360.1160.2180.218
0.2220.2660.2280.1180.2240.248
0.2260.2680.2180.160.2020.196
Mean0.2180.2570.2390.1670.2370.216
(P0.05)nsnsns

Liver
60 days exposure
Cell Diameter
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv --10 kv --Control1.5 kv --10 kv
0.540.5080.440.480.4620.5822
0.420.50.5020.4540.480.56
0.20.50.520.420.4740.5
0.5140.5140.5220.4120.4780.478
0.5220.5220.520.5220.460.6
Mean0.4320.5090.5010.4580.4710.544
nsnsns(P0.05)

Nuclear diameter
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv --10 kv --Control1.5 kv --10 kv
0.2280.220.230.180.220.2
0.2240.2640.240.2080.240.216
0.2620.2120.230.1180.2140.212
0.220.2580.2260.20.2180.244
0.20.2620.2040.2620.1180.192
Mean0.2270.2430.2260.1940.2020.213
nsnsnsns

Liver
90 days exposure
Cell Diameter
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv --10 kv --Control1.5 kv --10 kv
0.5240.5240.5220.5240.480.5
0.5160.5160.5240.4140.480.48
0.40.520.5220.440.4750.444
0.60.5020.5040.4560.4820.495
0.5260.510.5060.50.4640.502
Mean0.5130.5140.5160.4670.4760.485
nsnsnsns

Nuclear diameter
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv --10 kv --Control1.5 kv --10 kv
0.220.2640.3080.2640.2010.194
0.240.260.2280.20.220.246
0.2640.2140.230.2010.2160.214
0.2250.2660.260.210.260.218
0.230.270.2320.20.240.202
Mean0.2360.2550.2520.2150.2270.215
nsnsnsns

Liver
120 days exposure
Cell Diameter
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv --10 kv --Control1.5 kv --10 kv
0.5280.5120.480.520.4650.403
0.50.5030.5050.4580.4830.418
0.50.520.5230.460.4760.445
0.5180.5170.5250.4150.4810.482
0.5250.5260.5240.5250.490.51
Mean0.5140.5160.5110.4760.4790.452
nsnsnsns

Nuclear diameter
MaleFemale
Control1.5 kv --10 kv --Control1.5 kv --10 kv
0.2320.2650.260.210.230.285
0.2270.2620.2450.2120.2180.262
0.2650.2160.2350.2020.2210.285
0.250.2680.2620.210.2020.248
0.240.2710.2560.2650.230.26
Mean0.2430.2560.2520.2200.2200.268
nsnsns(P0.01)

Figure 1 :
T.S. passing through spleen of control rat showing capsule (a) : white pulp nodule (b) and red pulp (c) x 30

Figure 2 :
T.S. passing through spleen of control rat showing trabaculae (d) and red pulp (c) x 64

Figure 3 :
T.S. passing through spleen of 90 days 1.5 kv electric field exposure showing infiltration of lymphocytes (arrow) in red pulp area (c) x 64

Figure 4 :
T.S. passing through spleen of 120 days 10 kv electric field exposure showing number of leukocytes (L) increased in peripheral area of splenic nodules x 64

Figure 5 :
T.S. passing through liver of control rat showing capsule (a) : central vein (b) and hepatic cells (c) x 20

Figure 6 :
T.S. passing through liver of 60 days 1.5 kv electric field exposed liver showing mitotic division or repairing stage in the hepatic cells (c) and kupffer cells (K) x 180

Figure 7 :
T.S. passing through liver of 90 days 10 kv electric field exposure showing rupture of blood vessles (arrow) and kupffer cells (K) x 80

Liver is the heaviest gland in the body which is exocrine in nature acting as main centre for all metabolic activities. It is actively involved in the detoxification of various toxic materials circulating in the blood, most striking is its importance in maintaining blood glucose concentration (Leeson and Leeson, 1976). Exposure upto 30 days showed initial stress in liver. Substaintial morphological changes in liver upon exposure to continuous alternating magnetic fields in albino rats were noted by Tarakhovsky et al., (1971). On 60 and 90 days, hepatic cells were seen undergoing division indicating repairing stages. Low frequency field was found to enhance the rate of liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy in rat liver (Ottani et al., 1997) but prolonged exposure upto 120 days to electric fields resulted in the rupture of erythrocytes in both the sexes Enzyme reactions were reported to be disturbed in rat liver when it was exposed to electrostatic field and in Faraday cage (Klingenberg et al., 1975).

In normal course, liver is involved in excretion of bile pigments from breakdown of hemoglobin of damaged erythrocytes (Foster, 1981). Kupffer cells or stellate cells are actively phagocytic, frequently containing engulfed and degenerating erythrocytes and iron containing granules. Clumping of RBC's observed could be due to dysfunctioning of the stellate or kupffer cells resulting from chronic exposure. Disruptions of cell boundaries and vacuolation in the cytoplasm further point towards deleterious effects of the electric fields exposure on liver.

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